TEXT of Contract With America

Federal Reserve Act

Section 1. Short Title and Definitions

1. Short Title *

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That the short title of this Act shall be the “Federal Reserve Act.”

[12 USC 226. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.] *

2. Definition of “Bank”

Wherever the word “bank” is used in this Act, the word shall be held to include State bank, banking association, and trust company, except where national banks or Federal reserve banks are specifically referred to. For purposes of this Act, a State bank includes any bank which is operating under the Code of Law for the District of Columbia.

[12 USC 221. Part of original Federal Reserve Act. As amended by act of Oct. 13, 2006 (120 Stat. 2001). † ]

3. Definitions of Other Terms

The terms “national bank” and “national banking association” used in this Act shall be held to be synonymous and interchangeable. The term “member bank” shall be held to mean any national bank, State bank, or bank or trust company which has become a member of one of the reserve banks created by this Act. The term “board” shall be held to mean Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System; the term “district” shall be held to mean Federal reserve district; the term “reserve bank” shall be held to mean Federal reserve bank; the term “the continental United States” means the States of the United States and the District of Columbia.

4. Definition of “Bonds and Notes of the United States”

The terms “bonds and notes of the United States,” “bonds and notes of the Government of the United States,” and “bonds or notes of the United States” used in this Act shall be held to include certificates of indebtedness and Treasury bills issued under section 3104 of title 31.

[12 USC 221. As amended by acts of June 25, 1959 (73 Stat. 142) and Sept. 13, 1982 (96 Stat. 1058). For further definitions, see section 2 of Banking Act of 1933, approved June 16, 1933. Section 203(a) of the Banking Act of 1935, approved Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 704), provided: "Hereafter the Federal Reserve Board shall be known as the 'Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System', and the governor and vice governor of the Federal Reserve Board shall be known as the 'chairman' and the 'vice chairman', respectively, of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System." Accordingly, the words "Federal Reserve Board", "governor", and "vice governor", wherever they formerly appeared in the Federal Reserve Act (or in other acts of Congress), have been changed here to read "Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System", "chairman" and "vice chairman", respectively, notwithstanding the fact that such change has not been made by specific amendment of the law.

Section 2. Federal Reserve Districts

1. Establishment of Reserve Cities and Districts
As soon as practicable, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Agriculture and the Comptroller of the Currency, acting as "The Reserve Bank Organization Committee," shall designate not less than eight nor more than twelve cities to be known as Federal reserve cities, and shall divide the continental United States, excluding Alaska, into districts, each district to contain only one of such Federal reserve cities. The determination of said organization committee shall not be subject to review except by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System when organized: Provided, That the districts shall be apportioned with due regard to the convenience and customary course of business and shall not necessarily be coterminous with any State or States. The districts thus created may be readjusted and new districts may from time to time be created by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, not to exceed twelve in all. Such districts shall be known as Federal reserve districts and may be designated by number. When the State of Alaska or Hawaii is hereafter admitted to the Union the Federal Reserve districts shall be readjusted by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in such manner as to include such State. Every national bank in any State shall, upon commencing business or within ninety days after admission into the Union of the State in which it is located, become a member bank of the Federal Reserve System by subscribing and paying for stock in the Federal Reserve bank of its district in accordance with the provisions of this Act and shall thereupon be an insured bank under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, and failure to do so shall subject such bank to the penalty provided by the sixth paragraph of this section.

[Partly incorporated in 12 USC 222 and 223. As amended by acts of July 7, 1958 (72 Stat. 350); March 18, 1959 (73 Stat. 12).]

2. Powers of Organization Committee
Said organization committee shall be authorized to employ counsel and expert aid, to take testimony, to send for persons and papers, to administer oaths, and to make such investigation as may be deemed necessary by the said committee in determining the reserve districts and in designating the cities within such districts where such Federal reserve banks shall be severally located. The said committee shall supervise the organization in each of the cities designated of a Federal reserve bank, which shall include in its title the name of the city in which it is situated, as “Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.”

[Omitted from U.S. Code except part of last sentence, which is incorporated in 12 USC 225. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

3. Subscription to Stock by National Banks
Under regulations to be prescribed by the organization committee, every national banking association in the United States is hereby required, and every eligible bank in the United States and every trust company within the District of Columbia, is hereby authorized to signify in writing, within sixty days after the passage of this Act, its acceptance of the terms and provisions hereof. When the organization committee shall have designated the cities in which Federal reserve banks are to be organized, and fixed the geographical limits of the Federal reserve districts, every national banking association within that district shall be required within thirty days after notice from the organization committee, to subscribe to the capital stock of such Federal reserve bank in a sum equal to six per centum of the paid-up capital stock and surplus of such bank, one-sixth of the subscription to be payable on call of the organization committee or of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, one-sixth within three months and one-sixth within six months thereafter, and the remainder of the subscription, or any part thereof, shall be subject to call when deemed necessary by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, said payments to be in gold or gold certificates.

[Partly incorporated in 12 USC 282. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended. For provisions concerning stock subscriptions by state banks and trust companies, see section 9.]

4. Liability of Shareholders of Reserve Banks
The shareholders of every Federal reserve bank shall be held individually responsible, equally and ratably, and not one for another, for all contracts, debts, and engagements of such bank to the extent of the amount of their subscriptions to such stock at the par value thereof in addition to the amount subscribed, whether such subscriptions have been paid up in whole or in part, under the provisions of this Act.

[12 USC 502. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

5. Failure of National Bank to Accept Terms of Act
Any national bank failing to signify its acceptance of the terms of this Act within sixty days aforesaid, shall cease to act as a reserve agent, upon thirty days’ notice, to be given within the discretion of the said organization committee or of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

[Omitted from U.S. Code. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

6. Penalty for Violation of Act by National Banks
Should any national banking association in the United States now organized fail within one year after the passage of this Act to become a member bank or fail to comply with any of the provisions of this Act applicable thereto, all of the rights, privileges, and franchises of such association granted to it under the national-bank Act, or under the provisions of this Act, shall be thereby forfeited. Any noncompliance with or violation of this Act shall, however, be determined and adjudged by any court of the United States of competent jurisdiction in a suit brought for that purpose in the district or territory in which such bank is located, under direction of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, by the Comptroller of the Currency in his own name before the association shall be declared dissolved. In cases of such noncompliance or violation, other than the failure to become a member bank under the provisions of this Act, every director who participated in or assented to the same shall be held liable in his personal or individual capacity for all damages which said bank, its shareholders, or any other person shall have sustained in consequence of such violation.

[12 USC 501a. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

7. Effect of Dissolution
Such dissolution shall not take away or impair any remedy against such corporation, its stockholders or officers, for any liability or penalty which shall have been previously incurred.

[12 USC 501a. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

8. Stock Offered to Public
Should the subscriptions by banks to the stock of said Federal reserve banks or any one or more of them be, in the judgment of the organization committee, insufficient to provide the amount of capital required therefor, then and in that event the said organization committee may, under conditions and regulations to be prescribed by it, offer to public subscription at par such an amount of stock in said Federal reserve banks, or any one or more of them, as said committee shall determine, subject to the same conditions as to payment and stock liability as provided for member banks.

[Omitted from U.S. Code. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

9. Limitation on Amount to One Subscriber
No individual, copartnership, or corporation other than a member bank of its district shall be permitted to subscribe for or to hold at any time more than $25,000 par value of stock in any Federal reserve bank. Such stock shall be known as public stock and may be transferred on the books of the Federal reserve bank by the chairman of the board of directors of such bank.

[12 USC 283. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

10. Stock Allotted to United States
Should the total subscriptions by banks and the public to the stock of said Federal reserve banks, or any one or more of them, be, in the judgment of the organization committee, insufficient to provide the amount of capital required therefor, then and in that event the said organization committee shall allot to the United States such an amount of said stock as said committee shall determine. Said United States stock shall be paid for at par out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, and shall be held by the Secretary of the Treasury and disposed of for the benefit of the United States in such manner, at such times, and at such price, not less than par, as the Secretary of the Treasury shall determine.

[Omitted from U.S. Code. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended. In a communication from the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System dated March 7, 1941, it was stated, "As originally enacted the Federal Reserve Act provided for a Reserve Bank Organization Committee to have charge of the initial steps in organizing the Federal Reserve System and this Committee was authorized to allot Federal Reserve Bank stock to the United States in the event that subscriptions to such stock by banks and by the public were inadequate. However, subscriptions by member banks were adequate and there was no necessity or authority for the allocation of any stock to the United States. Accordingly, [this paragraph] is now of no practical effect and may be regarded as obsolete.”]

11. Voting Rights
Stock not held by member banks shall not be entitled to voting power.

[12 USC 285. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

12. Transfer of Stock
The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System is hereby empowered to adopt and promulgate rules and regulations governing the transfers of said stock.

[12 USC 286. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

13. Minimum Capital; Status of Reserve Cities
No Federal reserve bank shall commence business with a subscribed capital less than $4,000,000. The organization of reserve districts and Federal reserve cities shall not be construed as changing the present status of reserve cities, except in so far as this Act changes the amount of reserves that may be carried with approved reserve agents located therein. The organization committee shall have power to appoint such assistants and incur such expenses in carrying out the provisions of this Act as it shall deem necessary, and such expenses shall be payable by the Treasurer of the United States upon voucher approved by the Secretary of the Treasury, and the sum of $100,000, or so much thereof as may be necessary, is hereby appropriated, out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, for the payment of such expenses.

[Last sentence of this paragraph is omitted from U.S. Code; rest of paragraph is incorporated in 12 USC 224 and 281. Amended by act of July 28, 1959 (73 Stat. 264).]

Section 2A. Monetary Policy Objectives

The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Open Market Committee shall maintain long run growth of the monetary and credit aggregates commensurate with the economy’s long run potential to increase production, so as to promote effectively the goals of maximum employment, stable prices, and moderate long-term interest rates.

[12 USC 225a. As added by act of November 16, 1977 (91 Stat. 1387) and amended by acts of October 27, 1978 (92 Stat. 1897); Aug. 23, 1988 (102 Stat. 1375); and Dec. 27, 2000 (114 Stat. 3028).]

Section 2B. Appearances Before and Reports to the Congress

(a) Appearances before the Congress
1. The Chairman of the Board shall appear before the Congress at semi-annual hearings, as specified in paragraph (2), regarding A. the efforts, activities, objectives and plans of the Board and the Federal Open Market Committee with respect to the conduct of monetary policy; and
B. economic developments and prospects for the future described in the report required in subsection (b).

2. The Chairman of the Board shall appear A. before the Committee on Banking and Financial Services of the House of Representatives on or about February 20 of even numbered calendar years and on or about July 20 of odd numbered calendar years;
B. before the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate on or about July 20 of even numbered calendar years and on or about February 20 of odd numbered calendar years; and
C. before either Committee referred to in subparagraph (A) or (B), upon request, following the scheduled appearance of the Chairman before the other Committee under subparagraph (A) or (B).

[12 USC 225b. As added by act of Dec. 27, 2000 (114 Stat. 3028).]

(b) Congressional report. The Board shall, concurrent with each semi-annual hearing required by this section, submit a written report to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Banking and Financial Services of the House of Representatives, containing a discussion of the conduct of monetary policy and economic developments and prospects for the future, taking into account past and prospective developments in employment, unemployment, production,investment, real income, productivity, exchange rates, international trade and payments, and prices.

[12 USC 225b. As added by act of Dec. 27, 2000 (114 Stat. 3028).]

(c) Public access to information. The Board shall place on its home Internet website, a link entitled `Audit’, which shall link to a webpage that shall serve as a repository of information made available to the public for a reasonable period of time, not less than 6 months following the date of release of the relevant information, including–
1. the reports prepared by the Comptroller General under section 714 of title 31, United States Code;
2. the annual financial statements prepared by an independent auditor for the Board in accordance with section 11B;
3. the reports to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate required under section 13(3) (relating to emergency lending authority); and
4. such other information as the Board reasonably believes is necessary or helpful to the public in understanding the accounting, financial reporting, and internal controls of the Board and the Federal reserve banks.

[12 USC 225b. As added by act of July 21, 2010 (124 Stat. 2118).]

Section 3. Branch Offices

1. Establishment of Branches of Reserve Banks
The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may permit or require any Federal reserve bank to establish branch banks within the Federal reserve district in which it is located or within the district of any Federal reserve bank which may have been suspended. Such branches, subject to such rules and regulations as the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may prescribe, shall be operated under the supervision of a board of directors to consist of not more than seven nor less than three directors, of whom a majority of one shall be appointed by the Federal reserve bank of the district, and the remaining directors by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Directors of branch banks shall hold office during the pleasure of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.
[12 USC 521. As amended by act of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 232).]

2. Discontinuance of Branches
The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may at any time require any Federal Reserve Bank to discontinue any branch of such Federal Reserve Bank established under this section. The Federal Reserve Bank shall thereupon proceed to wind up the business of such branch bank, subject to such rules and regulations as the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may prescribe.

[12 USC 521. As added by act of Feb. 25, 1927 (44 Stat. 1234).]

3. Erection of Branch Buildings
No Federal Reserve Bank shall have authority hereafter to enter into any contract or contracts for the erection of any branch bank building of any kind or character or to authorize the erection of any such building, except with the approval of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

[12 USC 521. As added by act of Aug. 31, 1962 (76 Stat. 418).]

Section 4. Federal Reserve Banks

1. Organization of Reserve Banks

When the organization committee shall have established Federal reserve districts as provided in section two of this Act, a certificate shall be filed with the Comptroller of the Currency showing the geographical limits of such districts and the Federal reserve city designated in each of such districts. The Comptroller of the Currency shall thereupon cause to be forwarded to each national bank located in each district, and to such other banks declared to be eligible by the organization committee which may apply therefor, an application blank in form to be approved by the organization committee, which blank shall contain a resolution to be adopted by the board of directors of each bank executing such application, authorizing a subscription to the capital stock of the Federal reserve bank organizing in that district in accordance with the provisions of this Act.

[Omitted from U.S. Code. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

2. Organization Certificate

When the minimum amount of capital stock prescribed by this Act for the organization of any Federal reserve bank shall have been subscribed and allotted, the organization committee shall designate any five banks of those whose applications have been received, to execute a certificate of organization, and thereupon the banks so designated shall, under their seals, make an organization certificate which shall specifically state the name of such Federal reserve bank, the territorial extent of the district over which the operations of such Federal reserve bank are to be carried on, the city and State in which said bank is to be located, the amount of capital stock and the number of shares into which the same is divided, the name and place of doing business of each bank executing such certificate, and of all banks which have subscribed to the capital stock of such Federal reserve bank and the number of shares, subscribed by each, and the fact that the certificate is made to enable those banks executing same, and all banks which have subscribed or may thereafter subscribe to the capital stock of such Federal reserve bank, to avail themselves of the advantages of this Act.

[Omitted from U.S. Code. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

3. Acknowledgment and Filing

The said organization certificate shall be acknowledged before a judge of some court of record or notary public; and shall be, together with the acknowledgment thereof, authenticated by the seal of such court, or notary, transmitted to the Comptroller of the Currency, who shall file, record and carefully preserve the same in his office.

[Omitted from U.S. Code. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

4. General Corporate Powers

Upon the filing of such certificate with the Comptroller of the Currency as aforesaid, the said Federal reserve bank shall become a body corporate and as such, and in the name designated in such organization certificate, shall have power —

First. To adopt and use a corporate seal.

Second. To have succession after the approval of this Act until dissolved by Act of Congress or until forfeiture of franchise for violation of law.

Third. To make contracts

Fourth. To sue and be sued, complain and defend, in any court of law or equity.

Fifth. To appoint by its board of directors a president, vice presidents, and such officers and employees as are not otherwise provided for in this Act, to define their duties, require bonds for them and fix the penalty thereof, and to dismiss at pleasure such officers or employees. The president shall be the chief executive officer of the bank and shall be appointed by the Class B and Class C directors of the bank, with the approval of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, for a term of 5 years; and all other executive officers and all employees of the bank shall be directly responsible to the president. The first vice president of the bank shall be appointed in the same manner and for the same term as the president, and shall, in the absence or disability of the president or during a vacancy in the office of the president, serve as chief executive officer of the bank. Whenever a vacancy shall occur in the office of the president or the first vice president, it shall be filled in the manner provided for original appointments; and the person so appointed shall hold office until the expiration of the term of his predecessor.

Sixth. To prescribe by its board of directors, by-laws not inconsistent with law, regulating the manner in which its general business may be conducted, and the privileges granted to it by law may be exercised and enjoyed.

Seventh. To exercise by its board of directors, or duly authorized officers or agents, all powers specifically granted by the provisions of this Act and such incidental powers as shall be necessary to carry on the business of banking within the limitations prescribed by this Act.

Eighth. Upon deposit with the Treasurer of the United States of any bonds of the United States in the manner provided by existing law relating to national banks, to receive from the Secretary of the Treasury circulating notes in blank, registered and countersigned as provided by law, equal in amount to the par value of the bonds so deposited, such notes to be issued under the same conditions and provisions of law as relate to the issue of circulating notes of national banks secured by bonds of the United States bearing the circulating privilege, except that the issue of such notes shall not be limited to the capital stock of such Federal reserve bank.

[12 USC 341. As amended by act of Feb. 25, 1927 (44 Stat. 1234), which amended subparagraph "Second;" by act of Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 703), which amended subparagraph "Fifth" effective March 1, 1936; by act of Sept. 23, 1994 (108 Stat. 2293), which amended subparagraph "Eighth"; and by act of July 21, 2010 (124 Stat. 2126), which amended subparagraph "Fifth." As to issuance of Federal Reserve bank notes and redemption of bonds securing such notes, see section 18, and note to the first paragraph of that section.]

5. Authority to Commence Business

But no Federal reserve bank shall transact any business except such as is incidental and necessarily preliminary to its organization until it has been authorized by the Comptroller of the Currency to commence business under the provisions of this Act.

[12 USC 341. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

6. Board of Directors

Every Federal reserve bank shall be conducted under the supervision and control of a board of directors.

[12 USC 301. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

7. Duties of Directors Generally

The board of directors shall perform the duties usually appertaining to the office of directors of banking associations and all such duties as are prescribed by law.

[12 USC 301. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

8. Administration of Affairs; Extension of Credit

Said board of directors shall administer the affairs of said bank fairly and impartially and without discrimination in favor of or against any member bank or banks and may, subject to the provisions of law and the orders of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, extend to each member bank such discounts, advancements, and accommodations as may be safely and reasonably made with due regard for the claims and demands of other member banks, the maintenance of sound credit conditions, and the accommodation of commerce, industry, and agriculture. The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may prescribe regulations further defining within the limitations of this Act the conditions under which discounts, advancements, and the accommodations may be extended to member banks. Each Federal reserve bank shall keep itself informed of the general character and amount of the loans and investments of its member banks with a view to ascertaining whether undue use is being made of bank credit for the speculative carrying of or trading in securities, real estate, or commodities, or for any other purpose inconsistent with the maintenance of sound credit conditions; and, in determining whether to grant or refuse advances, rediscounts or other credit accommodations, the Federal reserve bank shall give consideration to such information. The chairman of the Federal reserve bank shall report to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System any such undue use of bank credit by any member bank, together with his recommendation. Whenever, in the judgment of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, any member bank is making such undue use of bank credit, the Board may, in its discretion, after reasonable notice and an opportunity for a hearing, suspend such bank from the use of the credit facilities of the Federal Reserve System and may terminate such suspension or may renew it from time to time.

[12 USC 301. As amended by act of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 163).]

9. Number and Classes of Directors

Such board of directors shall be selected as hereinafter specified and shall consist of nine members, holding office for three years, and divided into three classes, designated as classes A, B, and C.

[12 USC 302. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

10. Class A Directors

Class A shall consist of three members, without discrimination on the basis of race, creed, color, sex, or national origin, who shall be chosen by and be representative of the stockholding banks.

[12 USC 302. As amended by act of Nov. 16, 1977 (91 Stat. 1387).]

11. Class B Directors

Class B shall consist of three members, who shall represent the public and shall be elected without discrimination on the basis of race, creed, color, sex, or national origin, and with due but not exclusive consideration to the interests of agriculture, commerce, industry, services, labor, and consumers.

[12 USC 302. As amended by act of Nov. 16, 1977 (91 Stat. 1388).]

12. Class C Directors

Class C shall consist of three members who shall be designated by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. They shall be elected to represent the public, without discrimination on the basis of race, creed, color, sex, or national origin, and with due but not exclusive consideration to the interests of agriculture, commerce, industry, services, labor and consumers. When the necessary subscriptions to the capital stock have been obtained for the organization of any Federal reserve bank, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall appoint the class C directors and shall designate one of such directors as chairman of the board to be selected. Pending the designation of such chairman, the organization committee shall exercise the powers and duties appertaining to the office of chairman in the organization of such Federal reserve bank.

[12 USC 302. As amended by act of Nov. 16, 1977 (91 Stat. 1388).]

13. Senator or Representative Ineligible

No Senator or Representative in Congress shall be a member of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System or an officer or a director of a Federal reserve bank.

[12 USC 303. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

14. Class B Directors as Employees of Banks

No director of class B shall be an officer, director, or employee of any bank.

[12 USC 303. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

15. Class C Directors as Employees or Stockholders of Banks

No director of class C shall be an officer, director, employee, or stockholder of any bank.

[12 USC 303. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

16. Nomination and Election of Class A and B Directors

Directors of class A and class B shall be chosen in the following manner:

The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall classify the member banks of the district into three general groups or divisions, designating each group by number. Each group shall consist as nearly as may be of banks of similar capitalization. Each member bank shall be permitted to nominate to the chairman of the board of directors of the Federal reserve bank of the district one candidate for director of class A and one candidate for director of class B. The candidates so nominated shall be listed by the chairman, indicating by whom nominated, and a copy of said list shall, within fifteen days after its completion, be furnished by the chairman to each member bank. Each member bank by a resolution of the board or by an amendment to its by-laws shall authorize its president, cashier, or some other officer to cast the vote of the member bank in the elections of class A and class B directors: Provided, That whenever any member banks within the same Federal Reserve district are subsidiaries of the same bank holding company within the meaning of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, participation in any such nomination or election by such member banks, including such bank holding company if it is also a member bank, shall be confined to one of such banks, which may be designated for the purpose by such holding company.

[12 USC 304. As amended by acts of Sept. 26, 1918 (40 Stat. 968); June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 163); July 1, 1966 (80 Stat. 243).]

17. Preferential Ballot

Within fifteen days after receipt of the list of candidates the duly authorized officer of a member bank shall certify to the chairman his first, second, and other choices for director of class A and class B, respectively, upon a preferential ballot upon a form furnished by the chairman of the board of directors of the Federal reserve bank of the district. Each such officer shall make a cross opposite the name of the first, second, and other choices for a director of class A and for a director of class B, but shall not vote more than one choice for any one candidate. No officer or director of a member bank shall be eligible to serve as a class A director unless nominated and elected by banks which are members of the same group as the member bank of which he is an officer or director.

[12 USC 304. As amended by act of Sept. 26, 1918 (40 Stat. 968).]

18. Candidates Serving More Than One Member Bank

Any person who is an officer or director of more than one member bank shall not be eligible for nomination as a class A director except by banks in the same group as the bank having the largest aggregate resources of any of those of which such person is an officer or director.

[12 USC 304. As added by act of Sept. 26, 1918 (40 Stat. 968).]

19. Counting the Ballots

Any candidate having a majority of all votes cast in the column of first choice shall be declared elected. If no candidate have a majority of all the votes in the first column, then there shall be added together the votes cast by the electors for such candidates in the second column and the votes cast for the several candidates in the first column. The candidate then having a majority of the electors voting and the highest number of combined votes shall be declared elected. If no candidate have a majority of electors voting and the highest number of votes when the first and second choices shall have been added, then the votes cast in the third column for other choices shall be added together in like manner, and the candidate then having the highest number of votes shall be declared elected. An immediate report of election shall be declared.

[12 USC 304. As amended by act of June 26, 1930 (46 Stat. 815).]

20. Class C Directors; Chairman and Federal Reserve Agent; Deputy Chairman

Class C directors shall be appointed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. They shall have been for at least two years residents of the district for which they are appointed, one of whom shall be designated by said board as chairman of the board of directors of the Federal reserve bank and as “Federal reserve agent.” He shall be a person of tested banking experience, and in addition to his duties as chairman of the board of directors of the Federal reserve bank he shall be required to maintain, under regulations to be established by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, a local office of said board on the premises of the Federal reserve bank. He shall make regular reports to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and shall act as its official representative for the performance of the functions conferred upon it by this Act. He shall receive an annual compensation to be fixed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and paid monthly by the Federal reserve bank to which he is designated. One of the directors of class C shall be appointed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System as deputy chairman to exercise the powers of the chairman of the board when necessary. In case of the absence of the chairman and deputy chairman, the third class C director shall preside at meetings of the board.

[12 USC 305. As amended by act of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 232).]

21. Assistant Federal Reserve Agents

Subject to the approval of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the Federal reserve agent shall appoint one or more assistants. Such assistants, who shall be persons of tested banking experience, shall assist the Federal reserve agent in the performance of his duties and shall also have power to act in his name and stead during his absence or disability. The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall require such bonds of the assistant Federal reserve agents as it may deem necessary for the protection of the United States. Assistants to the Federal reserve agent shall receive an annual compensation, to be fixed and paid in the same manner as that of the Federal reserve agent.

[12 USC 306. As added by act of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 232).]

22. Compensation and Expenses of Directors, Officers, and Employees

Directors of Federal reserve banks shall receive, in addition to any compensation otherwise provided, a reasonable allowance for necessary expenses in attending meetings of their respective boards, which amounts shall be paid by the respective Federal reserve banks. Any compensation that may be provided by boards of directors of Federal reserve banks for directors, officers or employees shall be subject to the approval of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

[12 USC 307. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

23. Meetings of Directors Pending Organization

The Reserve Bank Organization Committee may, in organizing Federal reserve banks, call such meetings of bank directors in the several districts as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act, and may exercise the functions herein conferred upon the chairman of the board of directors of each Federal reserve bank pending the complete organization of such bank.

[Omitted from U.S. Code. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

24. Terms of Directors; Vacancies

At the first meeting of the full board of directors of each Federal reserve bank, it shall be the duty of the directors of classes A, B and C, respectively, to designate one of the members of each class whose term of office shall expire in one year from the first of January nearest to date of such meeting, one whose term of office shall expire at the end of two years from said date, and one whose term of office shall expire at the end of three years from said date. Thereafter every director of a Federal reserve bank chosen as hereinbefore provided shall hold office for a term of three years. Vacancies that may occur in the several classes of directors of Federal reserve banks may be filled in the manner provided for the original selection of such directors, such appointees to hold office for the unexpired terms of their predecessors.

[12 USC 308. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

Section 5. Stock Issues; Increase and Decrease of Capital

1. Amount of Shares; Increase and Decrease of Capital; Surrender and Cancellation of Stock
The capital stock of each Federal reserve bank shall be divided into shares of $100 each. The outstanding capital stock shall be increased from time to time as member banks increase their capital stock and surplus or as additional banks become members, and may be decreased as member banks reduce their capital stock or surplus or cease to be members. Shares of the capital stock of Federal reserve banks owned by member banks shall not be transferred or hypothecated. When a member bank increases its capital stock or surplus, it shall thereupon subscribe for an additional amount of capital stock of the Federal reserve bank of its district equal to 6 per centum of the said increase, one-half of said subscription to be paid in the manner hereinbefore provided for original subscription, and one-half subject to call of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. A bank applying for stock in a Federal reserve bank at any time after the organization thereof must subscribe for an amount of the capital stock of the Federal reserve bank equal to 6 per centum of the paid-up capital stock and surplus of said applicant bank, paying therefor its par value plus one-half of 1 per centum a month from the period of the last dividend. When a member bank reduces its capital stock or surplus it shall surrender a proportionate amount of its holdings in the capital stock of said Federal Reserve bank. Any member bank which holds capital stock of a Federal Reserve bank in excess of the amount required on the basis of 6 per centum of its paid-up capital stock and surplus shall surrender such excess stock. When a member bank voluntarily liquidates it shall surrender all of its holdings of the capital stock of said Federal Reserve bank and be released from its stock subscription not previously called. In any such case the shares surrendered shall be canceled and the member bank shall receive in payment therefor, under regulations to be prescribed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, a sum equal to its cash-paid subscriptions on the shares surrendered and one-half of 1 per centum a month from the period of the last dividend, not to exceed the book value thereof, less any liability of such member bank to the Federal Reserve bank.
[12 USC 287. As amended by act of Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 713).]

Section 6. Insolvency of Member Banks

1. Insolvency of Member Banks
If any member bank shall be declared insolvent and a receiver appointed therefor, the stock held by it in said Federal reserve bank shall be canceled, without impairment of its liability, and all cash-paid subscriptions on said stock, with one-half of 1 per centum per month from the period of last dividend, if earned, not to exceed the book value thereof, shall be first applied to all debts of the insolvent member bank to the Federal reserve bank, and the balance, if any, shall be paid to the receiver of the insolvent bank.
[12 USC 288. As amended by act of April 23, 1930 (46 Stat. 250).]

2. National Bank Discontinuing Banking Operations
If any national bank which has not gone into liquidation as provided in section 5220 of the Revised Statutes (United States Code, title 12, section 181) and for which a receiver has not already been appointed for other lawful cause, shall discontinue its banking operations for a period of sixty days the Comptroller of the Currency may, if he deems it advisable, appoint a receiver for such bank. The stock held by the said national bank in the Federal reserve bank of its district shall thereupon be canceled and said national bank shall receive in payment therefor, under regulations to be prescribed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, a sum equal to its cash-paid subscriptions on the shares canceled and one-half of 1 per centum a month from the period of the last dividend, if earned, not to exceed the book value thereof, less any liability of such national bank to the Federal reserve bank.
[12 USC 288. As added by act of April 23, 1930 (46 Stat. 250). As amended by act of Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 713).]

Section 8. Conversion of State Banks into National Banks

1. Conversion of State Banks into National Banks
Section fifty-one hundred and fifty-four, United States Revised Statutes, is hereby amended to read as follows:
Any bank incorporated by special law of any State or of the United States or organized under the general laws of any State or of the United States and having an unimpaired capital sufficient to entitle it to become a national banking association under the provisions of the existing laws may, by the vote of the shareholders owning not less than fifty-one per centum of the capital stock of such bank or banking association, with the approval of the Comptroller of the Currency be converted into a national banking association, with any name approved by the Comptroller of the Currency.

[12 USC 35. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

2. Organization of New Bank; Amount of Shares; Powers and Duties
Provided, however, That said conversion shall not be in contravention of the State law. In such case the articles of association and organization certificate may be executed by a majority of the directors of the bank or banking institution, and the certificate shall declare that the owners of fifty-one per centum of the capital stock have authorized the directors to make such certificate and to change or convert the bank or banking institution into a national association. A majority of the directors, after executing the articles of association and the organization certificate, shall have power to execute all other papers and to do whatever may be required to make its organization perfect and complete as a national association. The shares of any such bank may continue to be for the same amount each as they were before the conversion, and the directors may continue to be directors of the association until others are elected or appointed in accordance with the provisions of the statutes of the United States. When the Comptroller has given to such bank or banking association a certificate that the provisions of this Act have been complied with, such bank or banking association, and all its stockholders, officers, and employees, shall have the same powers and privileges, and shall be subject to the same duties, liabilities, and regulations, in all respects, as shall have been prescribed by the Federal Reserve Act and by the National Banking Act for associations originally organized as national banking associations.
[12 USC 35. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

3. Retention of Assets by Converting Bank
The Comptroller of the Currency may, in his discretion and subject to such conditions as he may prescribe, permit such converting bank to retain and carry at a value determined by the Comptroller such of the assets of such converting bank as do not conform to the legal requirements relative to assets acquired and held by national banking associations.
[12 USC 35. As added by act of Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 711).]

Section 9. State Banks as Members

1. Applications for Membership by State Banks

Any bank incorporated by special law of any State, operating under the Code of Law for the District of Columbia, or organized under the general laws of any State or of the United States, including Morris Plan banks and other incorporated banking institutions engaged in similar business, desiring to become a member of the Federal Reserve System, may make application to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, under such rules and regulations as it may prescribe, for the right to subscribe to the stock of the Federal reserve bank organized within the district in which the applying bank is located. Such application shall be for the same amount of stock that the applying bank would be required to subscribe to as a national bank. For the purposes of membership of any such bank the terms “capital” and “capital stock” shall include the amount of outstanding capital notes and debentures legally issued by the applying bank and purchased by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, subject to the provisions of this Act and to such conditions as it may prescribe pursuant thereto, may permit the applying bank to become a stockholder of such Federal reserve bank.

[12 USC 321. As amended by act of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 232), which completely revised this section; and by acts of Feb. 25, 1927 (44 Stat. 1229); June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 164); June 16, 1934 (48 Stat. 971); and Oct 13, 2006 (120 Stat. 2001). * For admission to membership of mutual savings banks, see paragraph 16.]

2. Continued Membership in Federal Reserve System

Upon the conversion of a national bank into a State bank, or the merger or consolidation of a national bank with a State bank which is not a member of the Federal Reserve System, the resulting or continuing State bank may be admitted to membership in the Federal Reserve System by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in accordance with the provisions of this section, but, otherwise, the Federal Reserve bank stock owned by the national bank shall be canceled and paid for as provided in section 5 of this Act. Upon the merger or consolidation of a national bank with a State member bank under a State charter, the membership of the State bank in the Federal Reserve System shall continue.

[12 USC 321. As added by act of Aug. 17, 1950 (64 Stat. 458).]

3. Branches of State Member Banks

Any such State bank which, at the date of the approval of this Act, has established and is operating a branch or branches in conformity with the State law, may retain and operate the same while remaining or upon becoming a stockholder of such Federal reserve bank; but no such State bank may retain or acquire stock in a Federal reserve bank except upon relinquishment of any branch or branches established after the date of the approval of this Act beyond the limits of the city, town, or village in which the parent bank is situated. Provided, however, That nothing herein contained shall prevent any State member bank from establishing and operating branches in the United States or any dependency or insular possession thereof or in any foreign country, on the same terms and conditions and subject to the same limitations and restrictions as are applicable to the establishment of branches by national banks except that the approval of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, instead of the Comptroller of the Currency, shall be obtained before any State member bank may hereafter establish any branch and before any State bank hereafter admitted to membership may retain any branch established after February 25, 1927, beyond the limits of the city, town, or village in which the parent bank is situated. The approval of the Board shall likewise be obtained before any State member bank may establish any new branch within the limits of any such city, town, or village.

[12 USC 321. As added by act of Feb. 25, 1927 (44 Stat. 1229); and amended by acts of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 164); Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 721); July 15, 1952 (66 Stat. 633); and Oct. 30, 2004 (118 Stat. 2232). The act referred to in this paragraph was approved Feb. 25, 1927. For provisions governing domestic branches of national banks, see section 5155, Revised Statutes; for provisions governing foreign branches, see section 25, this act.]

4. Financial Condition, Management, and Powers

In acting upon such applications the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall consider the financial condition of the applying bank, the general character of its management, and whether or not the corporate powers exercised are consistent with the purposes of this Act.

[12 USC 322. As added by act of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 233), which completely revised this section.]

5. Payment of Subscription

Whenever the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall permit the applying bank to become a stockholder in the Federal reserve bank of the district its stock subscription shall be payable on call of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, and stock issued to it shall be subject to the provisions of this Act.

[12 USC 323. As amended by act of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 233), which completely revised this section.]

6. Provision of Law to Be Complied with; Reports of Condition

All banks admitted to membership under authority of this section shall be required to comply with the reserve and capital requirements of this Act, to conform to those provisions of law imposed on national banks which prohibit such banks from lending on or purchasing their own stock and which relate to the withdrawal or impairment of their capital stock, and to conform to the provisions of sections 5199(b) and 5204 of the Revised Statutes with respect to the payment of dividends; except that any reference in any such provision to the Comptroller of the Currency shall be deemed for the purposes of this sentence to be a reference to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Such banks and the officers, agents, and employees thereof shall also be subject to the provisions of and to the penalties prescribed by sections 334, 656, and 1005 of Title 18, United States Code, and shall be required to make reports of condition and of the payment of dividends to the Federal Reserve bank of which they become a member. Not less than three of such reports shall be made annually on call of the Federal Reserve bank on dates to be fixed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Any bank which (A) maintains procedures reasonably adapted to avoid any inadvertent error and, unintentionally and as a result of such an error, fails to make or publish any report required under this paragraph, within the period of time specified by the Board, or submits or publishes any false or misleading report or information, or (B) inadvertently transmits or publishes any report which is minimally late, shall be subject to a penalty of not more than $2,000 for each day during which such failure continues or such false or misleading information is not corrected. The bank shall have the burden of proving that an error was inadvertent and that a report was inadvertently transmitted or published late. Any bank which fails to make or publish such reports within the period of time specified by the Board, or submits or publishes any false or misleading report or information, in a manner not described in the 2nd preceding sentence shall be subject to a penalty of not more than $20,000 for each day during which such failure continues or such false or misleading information is not corrected. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, if any bank knowingly or with reckless disregard for the accuracy of any information or report described in such sentence submits or publishes any false or misleading report or information, the Board may assess a penalty of not more than $1,000,000 or 1 percent of total assets of such bank, whichever is less, per day for each day during which such failure continues or such false or misleading information is not corrected. Any penalty imposed under any of the 4 preceding sentences shall be assessed and collected by the Board in the manner provided in subparagraphs (E), (F), (G), and (I) of section 8(i)(2) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (for penalties imposed under such section) and any such assessment (including the determination of the amount of the penalty) shall be subject to the provisions of such section. Any bank against which any penalty is assessed under this subsection shall be afforded an agency hearing if such bank submits a request for such hearing within 20 days after the issuance of the notice of assessment. Section 8(h) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act shall apply to any proceeding under this paragraph. Such reports of condition shall be in such form and shall contain such information as the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may require and shall be published.

[12 USC 324. As amended by act of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 233), which completely revised this section; and by acts of Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 713); Sept. 3, 1954 (68 Stat. 1236); Sept. 8, 1959 (73 Stat. 466); Aug. 9, 1989 (103 Stat. 480); and Sept. 23, 1994 (108 Stat. 2218). For provisions covering loans on or purchase of their own stock by national banks, see section 5201, Revised Statutes (12 USC 83); for provisions covering withdrawal of capital or payment of unearned dividends by national banks, see sections 5204 and 5199, Revised Statutes (12 USC 56 and 60); for provisions relating to impairment of capital of national banks, see section 5205, Revised Statutes (12 USC 55) and section 345 of Banking Act of 1935 (12 USC 51b-1).]

7. Examinations

As a condition of membership such banks shall likewise be subject to examinations made by direction of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System or of the Federal reserve bank by examiners selected or approved by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

[12 USC 325. As added by act of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 233), which completely revised this section.]

8. Acceptance of State Examinations; Expenses; Reports of Examinations and Confidential Supervisory Information

Whenever the directors of the Federal reserve bank shall approve the examinations made by the State authorities, such examinations and the reports thereof may be accepted in lieu of examinations made by examiners selected or approved by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System: Provided, however, That when it deems it necessary the board may order special examinations by examiners of its own selection and shall in all cases approve the form of the report. The expenses of all examinations, other than those made by State authorities, may, in the discretion of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, be assessed against the banks examined and, when so assessed, shall be paid by the banks examined. The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, at its discretion, may furnish any report of examination or other confidential supervisory information concerning any State member bank or other entity examined under any other authority of the Board, to any Federal or State agency or authority with supervisory or regulatory authority over the examined entity, to any officer, director, or receiver of the examined entity, and to any other person that the Board determines to be proper.

[12 USC 326. As added by act of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 233), which completely revised this section; and amended by acts of June 26, 1930 (46 Stat. 814) and Nov. 12, 1999 (113 Stat. 1475).]

9. Forfeiture of Membership

If at any time it shall appear to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System that a member bank has failed to comply with the provisions of this section or the regulations of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System made pursuant thereto, or has ceased to exercise banking functions without a receiver or liquidating agent having been appointed therefor, it shall be within the power of the board after hearing to require such bank to surrender its stock in the Federal reserve bank and to forfeit all rights and privileges of membership. The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may restore membership upon due proof of compliance with the conditions imposed by this section.

[12 USC 327. As amended by act of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 233), which completely revised this section; and further amended by act of April 23, 1930 (46 Stat. 251).]

10. Voluntary Withdrawal from Membership

Any State bank or trust company desiring to withdraw from membership in a Federal reserve bank may do so, after six months’ written notice shall have been filed with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, upon the surrender and cancellation of all of its holdings of capital stock in the Federal reserve bank: Provided, That the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, in its discretion and subject to such conditions as it may prescribe, may waive such six months’ notice in individual cases and may permit any such State bank or trust company to withdraw from membership in a Federal reserve bank prior to the expiration of six months from the date of the written notice of its intention to withdraw: Provided, however, That no Federal reserve bank shall, except under express authority of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, cancel within the same calendar year more than twenty-five per centum of its capital stock for the purpose of effecting voluntary withdrawals during that year. All such applications shall be dealt with in the order in which they are filed with the board. Whenever a member bank shall surrender its stock holdings in a Federal reserve bank, or shall be ordered to do so by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, under authority of law, all of its rights and privileges as a member bank shall thereupon cease and determine, and after due provision has been made for any indebtedness due or to become due to the Federal reserve bank it shall be entitled to a refund of its cash paid subscription with interest at the rate of one-half of one per centum per month from the date of last dividend, if earned, the amount refunded in no event to exceed the book value of the stock at that time, and shall likewise be entitled to repayment of deposits and of any other balance due from the Federal reserve bank.

[12 USC 328. As added by act of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 233), which completely revised this section; and amended by act of April 17, 1930 (46 Stat. 170).]

11. Capital Required for Membership

No applying bank shall be admitted to membership unless it possesses capital stock and surplus which, in the judgment of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, are adequate in relation to the character and condition of its assets and to its existing and prospective deposit liabilities and other corporate responsibilities: Provided, That no bank engaged in the business of receiving deposits other than trust funds, which does not possess capital stock and surplus in an amount equal to that which would be required for the establishment of a national banking association in the place in which it is located, shall be admitted to membership unless it is, or has been, approved for deposit insurance under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act. The capital stock of a State member bank shall not be reduced except with the prior consent of the Board.

[12 USC 329. As amended by acts of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 234), which completely revised this section; March 4, 1923 (42 Stat. 1478); June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 185); and July 15, 1952 (66 Stat. 633). For provisions relating to minimum capital and surplus of national banks, see section 5138, Revised Statutes.]

12. Waiver of Membership Requirements as to Insured Banks

In order to facilitate the admission to membership in the Federal Reserve System of any State bank which is required under subsection (y) of section 12B of this Act to become a member of the Federal Reserve System in order to be an insured bank or continue to have any part of its deposits insured under such section 12B, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may waive in whole or in part the requirements of this section relating to the admission of such bank to membership: Provided, That, if such bank is admitted with a capital less than that required for the organization of a national bank in the same place and its capital and surplus are not, in the judgment of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, adequate in relation to its liabilities to depositors and other creditors, the said Board may, in its discretion, require such bank to increase its capital and surplus to such amount as the Board may deem necessary within such period prescribed by the Board as in its judgment shall be reasonable in view of all the circumstances: Provided, however, That no such bank shall be required to increase its capital to an amount in excess of that required for the organization of a national bank in the same place.

[Formerly 12 USC 329a, as added by act of Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 704). Omitted from the U.S. Code. The provision of section 12B(y) requiring membership in Federal Reserve System was repealed by act of June 20, 1939 (53 Stat. 842); and all of section 12B was withdrawn and enacted as a separate Federal Deposit Insurance Act by act of Sept. 21, 1950 (64 Stat. 873).]

13. Laws to Which Subject

Banks becoming members of the Federal Reserve System under authority of this section shall be subject to the provisions of this section and to those of this Act which relate specifically to member banks, but shall not be subject to examination under the provisions of the first two paragraphs of section fifty-two hundred and forty of the Revised Statutes as amended by section twenty-one of this Act. Subject to the provisions of this Act and to the regulations of the board made pursuant thereto, any bank becoming a member of the Federal Reserve System shall retain its full charter and statutory rights as a State bank or trust company, and may continue to exercise all corporate powers granted it by the State in which it was created, and shall be entitled to all privileges of member banks, except that the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may limit the activities of State member banks and subsidiaries of State member banks in a manner consistent with section 24 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act. No Federal reserve bank shall be permitted to discount for any State bank or trust company notes, drafts, or bills of exchange of any one borrower who is liable for borrowed money to such State bank or trust company in an amount greater than that which could be borrowed lawfully from such State bank or trust company were it a national banking association. The Federal reserve bank, as a condition of the discount of notes, drafts, and bills of exchange for such State bank or trust company, shall require a certificate or guaranty to the effect that the borrower is not liable to such bank in excess of the amount provided by this section, and will not be permitted to become liable in excess of this amount while such notes, drafts, or bills of exchange are under discount with the Federal reserve bank.

[12 USC 330. As added by act of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 234), which completely revised this section; and amended by acts of July 1, 1922 (42 Stat. 821) and Dec. 19, 1991 (105 Stat. 2353). As to limitations on loans by national banks to one person, see section 5200, Revised Statutes.]

14. False Certification of Checks

It shall be unlawful for any officer, clerk, or agent of any bank admitted to membership under authority of this section to certify any check drawn upon such bank unless the person or company drawing the check has on deposit therewith at the time such check is certified an amount of money equal to the amount specified in such check. Any check so certified by duly authorized officers shall be a good and valid obligation against such bank, but the act of any such officer, clerk, or agent in violation of this section may subject such bank to a forfeiture of its membership in the Federal Reserve System upon hearing by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

[12 USC 331. As added by act of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 234), which completely revised this section. For additional provisions covering false certification of checks by officers of Federal Reserve Banks and member banks, see also section 5208, Revised Statutes and 18 USC 1004.]

15. Government Depositaries and Financial Agents

All banks or trust companies incorporated by special law or organized under the general laws of any State, which are members of the Federal Reserve System, when designated for that purpose by the Secretary of the Treasury, shall be depositaries of public money, under such regulations as may be prescribed by the Secretary; and they may also be employed as financial agents of the Government; and they shall perform all such reasonable duties, as depositaries of public money and financial agents of the Government, as may be required of them. The Secretary of the Treasury shall require of the banks and trust companies thus designated satisfactory security, by the deposit of United States bonds or otherwise, for the safe keeping and prompt payment of the public money deposited with them and for the faithful performance of their duties as financial agents of the Government.

[12 USC 332. As added by act of May 7, 1928 (45 Stat. 492).]

16. Admission to Membership of Mutual Savings Banks

Any mutual savings bank having no capital stock (including any other banking institution the capital of which consists of weekly or other time deposits which are segregated from all other deposits and are regarded as capital stock for the purposes of taxation and the declaration of dividends), but having surplus and undivided profits not less than the amount of capital required for the organization of a national bank in the same place, may apply for and be admitted to membership in the Federal Reserve System in the same manner and subject to the same provisions of law as State banks and trust companies, except that any such savings banks shall subscribe for capital stock of the Federal reserve bank in an amount equal to six-tenths of 1 per centum of its total deposit liabilities as shown by the most recent report of examination of such savings bank preceding its admission to membership. Thereafter such subscription shall be adjusted semiannually on the same percentage basis in accordance with rules and regulations prescribed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. If any such mutual savings bank applying for membership is not permitted by the laws under which it was organized to purchase stock in a Federal reserve bank, it shall, upon admission to the system, deposit with the Federal reserve bank an amount equal to the amount which it would have been required to pay in on account of a subscription to capital stock. Thereafter such deposit shall be adjusted semiannually in the same manner as subscriptions for stock. Such deposits shall be subject to the same conditions with respect to repayment as amounts paid upon subscriptions to capital stock by other member banks and the Federal reserve bank shall pay interest thereon at the same rate as dividends are actually paid on outstanding shares of stock of such Federal reserve bank. If the laws under which any such savings bank was organized be amended so as to authorize mutual savings banks to subscribe for Federal reserve bank stock, such savings bank shall thereupon subscribe for the appropriate amount of stock in the Federal reserve bank, and the deposit hereinbefore provided for in lieu of payment upon capital stock shall be applied upon such subscription. If the laws under which any such savings bank was organized be not amended at the next session of the legislature following the admission of such savings bank to membership so as to authorize mutual savings banks to purchase Federal reserve bank stock, or if such laws be so amended and such bank fail within six months thereafter to purchase such stock, all of its rights and privileges as a member bank shall be forfeited and its membership in the Federal Reserve System shall be terminated in the manner prescribed elsewhere in this section with respect to State member banks and trust companies. Each such mutual savings bank shall comply with all the provisions of law applicable to State member banks and trust companies, with the regulations of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and with the conditions of membership prescribed for such savings bank at the time of admission to membership, except as otherwise hereinbefore provided with respect to capital stock.

[12 USC 333. As added by act of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 164). As to the amount of capital required for the organization of a national bank, see section 5138, Revised Statutes.]

17. Reports of Affiliates

Each bank admitted to membership under this section shall obtain from each of its affiliates other than member banks and furnish to the Federal reserve bank of its district and to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System not less than three reports during each year. Such reports shall be in such form as the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may prescribe, shall be verified by the oath or affirmation of the president or such other officer as may be designated by the board of directors of such affiliate to verify such reports, and shall disclose the information hereinafter provided for as of dates identical with those fixed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System for reports of the condition of the affiliated member bank. Each such report of an affiliate shall be transmitted as herein provided at the same time as the corresponding report of the affiliated member bank, except that the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may, in its discretion, extend such time for good cause shown. Each such report shall contain such information as in the judgment of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall be necessary to disclose fully the relations between such affiliate and such bank and to enable the Board to inform itself as to the effect of such relations upon the affairs of such bank. The reports of such affiliates shall be published by the bank under the same conditions as govern its own condition reports.

[12 USC 334. As added by act of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 165). As to reports of affiliates of national banks, see section 5211, Revised Statutes (12 USC 161).]

18. Additional Reports of Affiliates

Any such affiliated member bank may be required to obtain from any such affiliate such additional reports as in the opinion of its Federal reserve bank or the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may be necessary in order to obtain a full and complete knowledge of the condition of the affiliated member bank. Such additional reports shall be transmitted to the Federal reserve bank and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and shall be in such form as the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may prescribe.

[12 USC 334. As added by act of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 165).]

19. Failure to Obtain Reports of Affiliates

Any such affiliated member bank which fails to obtain from any of its affiliates and furnish any report provided for by the two preceding paragraphs of this section shall be subject to a penalty of $100 for each day during which such failure continues, which, by direction of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, may be collected, by suit or otherwise, by the Federal reserve bank of the district in which such member bank is located.

[12 USC 334. As added by act of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 165) and amended by act of July 1, 1966 (80 Stat. 243). For definition of "affiliate" see section 2 of the Banking Act of 1933, approved June 16, 1933.]

20. Dealings in Investment Securities and Stock

State member banks shall be subject to the same limitations and conditions with respect to the purchasing, selling, underwriting, and holding of investment securities and stock as are applicable in the case of national banks under paragraph “Seventh” of section 5136 of the Revised Statutes, as amended. This paragraph shall not apply to any interest held by a State member bank in accordance with section 5136A of the Revised Statutes of the United States and subject to the same conditions and limitations provided in such section.

[12 USC 335. As added by act of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 165) and amended by act of Nov. 12, 1999 (113 Stat. 1381).]

21. Stock Representing Stock of Other Corporations

After the date of the enactment of the Banking Act of 1935, no certificate evidencing the stock of any State member bank shall bear any statement purporting to represent the stock of any other corporation, except a member bank or a corporation engaged on June 16, 1934 in holding the bank premises of such member bank, nor shall the ownership, sale, or transfer of any certificate representing the stock of any State member bank be conditioned in any manner whatsoever upon the ownership, sale, or transfer of a certificate representing the stock of any other corporation, except a member bank or a corporation engaged on June 16, 1934 in holding the bank premises of such member bank: Provided, That this section shall not operate to prevent the ownership, sale, or transfer of stock of any other corporation being conditioned upon the ownership, sale, or transfer of a certificate representing stock of a State member bank.

[12 USC 336. As added by act of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 165); and amended by act of Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 710). The Banking Act of 1935, referred to in this paragraph, was approved Aug. 23, 1935. For similar provision applicable to stock of national banks, see section 5139, Revised Statutes (12 USC 52).]

22. Examinations of Affiliates

In connection with examinations of State member banks, examiners selected or approved by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall make such examinations of the affairs of all affiliates of such banks as shall be necessary to disclose fully the relations between such banks and their affiliates and the effect of such relations upon the affairs of such banks. The expense of examination of affiliates of any State member bank may, in the discretion of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, be assessed against such bank and, when so assessed, shall be paid by such bank. In the event of the refusal to give any information requested in the course of the examination of any such affiliate, or in the event of the refusal to permit such examination, or in the event of the refusal to pay any expense so assessed, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may, in its discretion, require any or all State member banks affiliated with such affiliate to surrender their stock in the Federal reserve bank and to forfeit all rights and privileges of membership in the Federal Reserve System, as provided in this section.

[12 USC 338. As added by act of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 166). As to examinations of affiliates of national banks, see this act, section 21.]

23. Community Development Authority

A State member bank may make investments directly or indirectly, each of which is designed primarily to promote the public welfare, including the welfare of low- and moderate-income communities or families (such as by providing housing, services, or jobs), to the extent permissible under State law. A State member bank shall not make any such investment if the investment would expose the State member bank to unlimited liability. The Board shall limit a State member bank’s investment in any 1 project and a State member bank’s aggregate investments under this paragraph. The aggregate amount of investments of any State member bank under this paragraph may not exceed an amount equal to the sum of 5 percent of the State member bank’s capital stock actually paid in and unimpaired and 5 percent of the State member bank’s unimpaired surplus, unless the Board determines, by order, that a higher amount will pose no significant risk to the affected deposit insurance fund; and the State member bank is adequately capitalized. In no case shall the aggregate amount of investments of any State member bank under this paragraph exceed an amount equal to the sum of 15 percent of the State member bank’s capital stock actually paid in and unimpaired and 15 percent of the State member bank’s unimpaired surplus. The foregoing standards and limitations apply to investments under this paragraph made by a State member bank directly and by its subsidiaries.

[12 USC 338a. As added by act of Oct. 23, 1992 (106 Stat. 2774) and amended by acts of Feb. 15, 2006 (119 Stat. 3616); Oct. 13, 2006 (120 Stat. 1971); and July 30, 2008 (122 Stat. 2857).]

* An identical amendment was made by act of Oct. 16, 2006 (120 Stat. 2028).

Section 9A. Participation in Lotteries Prohibited
(a) A State member bank may not– 1.deal in lottery tickets;
2.deal in bets used as a means or substitute for participation in a lottery;
3.announce, advertise, or publicize the existence of any lottery;
4.announce, advertise, or publicize the existence or identity of any participant or winner, as such, in a lottery.

(b) A State member bank may not permit– 1.the use of any part of any of its banking offices by any person for any purpose forbidden to the bank under subsection (a), or
2.direct access by the public from any of its banking offices to any premises used by any person for any purpose forbidden to the bank under subsection (a).

(c) As used in this section– 1.The term “deal in” includes making, taking, buying, selling, redeeming, or collecting.
2.The term “lottery” includes any arrangement whereby three or more persons (the “participants”) advance money or credit to another in exchange for the possibility or expectation that one or more but not all of the participants (the “winners”) will receive by reason of their advances more than the amounts they have advanced, the identity of the winners being determined by any means which includes– A.a random selection;
B.a game, race, or contest; or
C.any record or tabulation of the result of one or more events in which any participant has no interest except for its bearing upon the possibility that he may become a winner.

3.The term “lottery ticket” includes any right, privilege, or possibility (and any ticket, receipt, record, or other evidence of any such right, privilege, or possibility) of becoming a winner in a lottery.

(d) Nothing contained in this section prohibits a State member bank from accepting deposits or cashing or otherwise handling checks or other negotiable instruments, or performing other lawful banking services for a State operating a lottery, or for an officer or employee of that State who is charged with the administration of the lottery.

(e) The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall issue such regulations as may be necessary to the strict enforcement of this section and the prevention of evasions thereof.
[12 USC 339. As added by act of Dec. 15, 1967 (81 Stat. 609) effective April 1, 1968. Corresponding prohibitions are contained in section 5136B of the Revised Statutes, section 20 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, and section 410 of the National Housing Act with respect to national banks, nonmember insured banks, and institutions insured by the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation, respectively.]

Section 9B. Resolution of Clearing Banks
(a) Conservatorship or receivership 1.Appointment. The Board may appoint a conservator or receiver to take possession and control of any uninsured State member bank which operates, or operates as, a multilateral clearing organization pursuant to section 409 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation Improvement Act of 1991 to the same extent and in the same manner as the Comptroller of the Currency may appoint a conservator or receiver for a national bank.
2.Powers. The conservator or receiver for an uninsured State member bank referred to in paragraph (1) shall exercise the same powers, functions, and duties, subject to the same limitations, as a conservator or receiver for a national bank.
(b) Board authority. The Board shall have the same authority with respect to any conservator or receiver appointed under subsection (a), and the uninsured State member bank for which the conservator or receiver has been appointed, as the Comptroller of the Currency has with respect to a conservator or receiver for a national bank and the national bank for which the conservator or receiver has been appointed.
(c) Bankruptcy proceedings. The Board (in the case of an uninsured State member bank which operates, or operates as, such a multilateral clearing organization) may direct a conservator or receiver appointed for the bank to file a petition pursuant to title 11, United States Code, in which case, title 11, United States Code, shall apply to the bank in lieu of otherwise applicable Federal or State insolvency law.

[12 USC 339a. As added by act of Dec. 21, 2000 (114 Stat. 2763A-392).]

Section 10. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System

1. Appointment and Qualification of Members

The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (hereinafter referred to as the “Board”) shall be composed of seven members, to be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, after the date of enactment of the Banking Act of 1935, for terms of fourteen years except as hereinafter provided, but each appointive member of the Federal Reserve Board in office on such date shall continue to serve as a member of the Board until February 1, 1936, and the Secretary of the Treasury and the Comptroller of the Currency shall continue to serve as members of the Board until February 1, 1936. In selecting the members of the Board, not more than one of whom shall be selected from any one Federal Reserve district, the President shall have due regard to a fair representation of the financial, agricultural, industrial, and commercial interests, and geographical divisions of the country. The members of the Board shall devote their entire time to the business of the Board and shall each receive an annual salary of $15,000, payable monthly, together with actual necessary traveling expenses.

[12 USC 241. As amended by acts of June 3, 1922 (42 Stat. 620); Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 704). Prior to the enactment of the Banking Act of 1935, approved Aug. 23, 1935, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System was known as the Federal Reserve Board. See note to the third paragraph of section 1. The portion of this paragraph dealing with salaries of Board members has in effect been amended numerous times, most recently by Executive Order. Prior to the act of December 27, 2000, section 1002 of which revised the executive schedule, the salary of the chairman of the Board was set at executive schedule level 2 and the salary of other members at level 3. The salary of the chairman of the Board is now set at executive schedule level I, and the salary of other members at level II (see 2 USC 358 and 5 USC 5313 and 5314).]

2. Members Ineligible to Serve Member Banks; Term of Office; Chairman and Vice Chairman

The members of the Board shall be ineligible during the time they are in office and for two years thereafter to hold any office, position, or employment in any member bank, except that this restriction shall not apply to a member who has served the full term for which he was appointed. Upon the expiration of the term of any appointive member of the Federal Reserve Board in office on the date of enactment of the Banking Act of 1935, the President shall fix the term of the successor to such member at not to exceed fourteen years, as designated by the President at the time of nomination, but in such manner as to provide for the expiration of the term of not more than one member in any two-year period, and thereafter each member shall hold office for a term of fourteen years from the expiration of the term of his predecessor, unless sooner removed for cause by the President. Of the persons thus appointed, 1 shall be designated by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to serve as Chairman of the Board for a term of 4 years, and 2 shall be designated by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to serve as Vice Chairmen of the Board, each for a term of 4 years, 1 of whom shall serve in the absence of the Chairman, as provided in the fourth undesignated paragraph of this section, and 1 of whom shall be designated Vice Chairman for Supervision. The Vice Chairman for Supervision shall develop policy recommendations for the Board regarding supervision and regulation of depository institution holding companies and other financial firms supervised by the Board, and shall oversee the supervision and regulation of such firms. The chairman of the Board, subject to its supervision, shall be its active executive officer. Each member of the Board shall within fifteen days after notice of appointment make and subscribe to the oath of office. Upon the expiration of their terms of office, members of the Board shall continue to serve until their successors are appointed and have qualified. Any person appointed as a member of the Board after the date of enactment of the Banking Act of 1935 shall not be eligible for reappointment as such member after he shall have served a full term of fourteen years.

[[12 USC 242. As amended by acts of March 3, 1919 (40 Stat. 1315); June 3, 1922 (42 Stat. 620); June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 166); Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 704); November 16, 1977 (91 Stat. 1388); and act of July 21, 2010 (124 Stat. 2126). The Banking Act of 1935, referred to in this paragraph, became effective Aug. 23, 1935. Prior to the enactment of that act, the chairman and vice chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System were known as the governor and vice governor of the Federal Reserve Board, respectively. See note to the third paragraph of section 1. The act of November 16, 1977, amended the second sentence of this paragraph. The amendment takes effect on Jan. 1, 1979, and applies to individuals who are designated by the President on or after such date to serve as chairman or vice chairman. The act of July 21, 2010, designated a new Vice Chairman for Supervision.]

3. Assessments on Federal Reserve Banks

The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall have power to levy semiannually upon the Federal reserve banks, in proportion to their capital stock and surplus, an assessment sufficient to pay its estimated expenses and the salaries of its members and employees for the half year succeeding the levying of such assessments, together with any deficit carried forward from the preceding half year, and such assessments may include amounts sufficient to provide for the acquisition by the Board in its own name of such site or building in the District of Columbia as in its judgment alone shall be necessary for the purpose of providing suitable and adequate quarters for the performance of its functions. After September 1, 2000, the Board may also use such assessments to acquire, in its own name, a site or building (in addition to the facilities existing on such date) to provide for the performance of the functions of the Board. After approving such plans, estimates, and specifications as it shall have caused to be prepared, the Board may, notwithstanding any other provision of law, cause to be constructed on any site so acquired by it a building or buildings suitable and adequate in its judgment for its purposes and proceed to take all such steps as it may deem necessary or appropriate in connection with the construction, equipment, and furnishing of such building or buildings. The Board may maintain, enlarge, or remodel any building or buildings so acquired or constructed and shall have sole control of such building or buildings and space therein.

[12 USC 243. As reenacted without change by act of June 3, 1922 (42 Stat. 621); and amended by acts of June 19, 1934 (48 Stat. 1108) and Dec. 27, 2000 (114 Stat. 3027). By act approved June 27, 1935 (49 Stat. 425), provision was made for the furnishing of steam from the central heating plant to the Federal Reserve Board, now the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.]

4. Principal Offices; Expenses; Deposit of Funds; Members Not to Be Officers or Stockholders of Banks

The principal offices of the Board shall be in the District of Columbia. At meetings of the Board the chairman shall preside, and, in his absence, the vice chairman shall preside. In the absence of the chairman and the vice chairman, the board shall elect a member to act as chairman pro tempore. The Board shall determine and prescribe the manner in which its obligations shall be incurred and its disbursements and expenses allowed and paid, and may leave on deposit in the Federal Reserve banks the proceeds of assessments levied upon them to defray its estimated expenses and the salaries of its members and employees, whose employment, compensation, leave, and expenses shall be governed solely by the provisions of this Act, specific amendments thereof, and rules and regulations of the Board not inconsistent therewith; and funds derived from such assessments shall not be construed to be Government funds or appropriated moneys. No member of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall be an officer or director of any bank, banking institution, trust company, or Federal Reserve bank or hold stock in any bank, banking institution, or trust company; and before entering upon his duties as a member of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System he shall certify under oath that he has complied with this requirement, and such certification shall be filed with the secretary of the Board. Whenever a vacancy shall occur, other than by expiration of term, among the six members of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System appointed by the President as above provided, a successor shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to fill such vacancy, and when appointed he shall hold office for the unexpired term of his predecessor.

[12 USC 244. As amended by acts of June 3, 1922 (42 Stat. 621); June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 167); Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 705). The reference to "the six members" of the Board of Governors is an apparent error in the law and should read "the seven members." See section 10, first paragraph.]

5. Vacancies During Recess of Senate

The President shall have power to fill all vacancies that may happen on the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System during the recess of the Senate by granting commissions which shall expire with the next session of the Senate.

[12 USC 245. As amended by act of June 3, 1922 (42 Stat. 621).]

6. Reservation of Powers of Secretary of Treasury

Nothing in this Act contained shall be construed as taking away any powers heretofore vested by law in the Secretary of the Treasury which relate to the supervision, management, and control of the Treasury Department and bureaus under such department, and wherever any power vested by this Act in the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System or the Federal reserve agent appears to conflict with the powers of the Secretary of the Treasury, such powers shall be exercised subject to the supervision and control of the Secretary.

[12 USC 246. As reenacted without change by act of June 3, 1922 (42 Stat. 621).]

7. Annual Report

The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall annually make a full report of its operations to the Speaker of the House of Representatives, who shall cause the same to be printed for the information of the Congress. The report required under this paragraph shall include the reports required under section 707 of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, section 18(f)(7) of the Federal Trade Commission Act, section 114 of the Truth in Lending Act, and the tenth undesignated paragraph of this section.

[12 USC 247. As reenacted without change by act of June 3, 1922 (42 Stat. 621) and amended by acts of June 3, 1922, and Dec. 27, 2000 (114 Stat. 3030).]

8. Issuance of National Currency and Federal Reserve Notes

Section three hundred and twenty-four of the Revised Statutes of the United States shall be amended so as to read as follows:

Sec. 324. There shall be in the Department of the Treasury a bureau charged with the execution of all laws passed by Congress relating to the issue and regulation of national currency secured by United States bonds, and under the general supervision of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, of all Federal Reserve notes, except for the cancellation and destruction, and accounting with respect to such cancellation and destruction, of Federal Reserve notes unfit for circulation, the chief officer of which bureau shall be called the Comptroller of the Currency and shall perform his duties under the general directions of the Secretary of the Treasury. The Comptroller of the Currency shall have the same authority over matters within the jurisdiction of the Comptroller as the Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision has over matters within the Director’s jurisdiction under section 3(b)(3) of the Home Owners’ Loan Act. The Secretary of the Treasury may not delay or prevent the issuance of any rule or the promulgation of any regulation by the Comptroller of the Currency.

[12 USC 1. As reenacted without change by act of June 3, 1922 (42 Stat. 621); and amended by acts of May 20, 1966 (80 Stat. 161) and Sept. 23, 1994 (108 Stat. 2232).]

9. Branch Federal Reserve Bank Buildings

No Federal Reserve bank may authorize the acquisition or construction of any branch building, or enter into any contract or other obligation for the acquisition or construction of any branch building, without the approval of the Board.

[12 USC 522. As added by act of June 3, 1922 (42 Stat. 622); and amended by acts of Feb. 6, 1923 (42 Stat. 1223); July 30, 1947 (61 Stat. 520); May 29, 1953 (67 Stat. 41); Aug. 31, 1962 (76 Stat. 418); Oct. 28, 1974 (88 Stat. 1505); and Oct. 24, 1992 (106 Stat. 3144).]

10. Record of Open Market and Other Policies

The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall keep a complete record of the action taken by the Board and by the Federal Open Market Committee upon all questions of policy relating to open-market operations and shall record therein the votes taken in connection with the determination of open-market policies and the reasons underlying the action of the Board and the Committee in each instance. The Board shall keep a similar record with respect to all questions of policy determined by the Board, and shall include in its annual report to the Congress a full account of the action so taken during the preceding year with respect to open-market policies and operations and with respect to the policies determined by it and shall include in such report a copy of the records required to be kept under the provisions of this paragraph.

[12 USC 247a. As added by act of Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 705).]

12. Appearances before Congress*

The Vice Chairman for Supervision shall appear before the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Financial Services of the House of Representatives and at semi-annual hearings regarding the efforts, activities, objectives, and plans of the Board with respect to the conduct of supervision and regulation of depository institution holding companies and other financial firms supervised by the Board.

[12 USC 247b. As added by act of July 21, 2010 (124 Stat. 2126).]

* The act of July 21, 2010, added paragraph 12 without adding paragraph 11.

Section 10A. Emergency Advances to Groups of Member Banks *

1. Authority of Reserve Banks to Make Advances
Upon receiving the consent of not less than five members of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, any Federal reserve bank may make advances, in such amount as the board of directors of such Federal reserve bank may determine, to groups of five or more member banks within its district, a majority of them independently owned and controlled, upon their time or demand promissory notes, provided the bank or banks which receive the proceeds of such advances as herein provided have no adequate amounts of eligible and acceptable assets available to enable such bank or banks to obtain sufficient credit accommodations from the Federal reserve bank through rediscounts or advances other than as provided in section 10(b). The liability of the individual banks in each group must be limited to such proportion of the total amount advanced to such group as the deposit liability of the respective banks bears to the aggregate deposit liability of all banks in such group, but such advances may be made to a lesser number of such member banks if the aggregate amount of their deposit liability constitutes at least 10 per centum of the entire deposit liability of the member banks within such district. Such banks shall be authorized to distribute the proceeds of such loans to such of their number and in such amount as they may agree upon, but before so doing they shall require such recipient banks to deposit with a suitable trustee, representing the entire group, their individual notes made in favor of the group protected by such collateral security as may be agreed upon. Any Federal reserve bank making such advance shall charge interest or discount thereon at a rate not less than 1 per centum above its discount rate in effect at the time of making such advance. No such note upon which advances are made by a Federal reserve bank under this section shall be eligible under section 16 of this Act as collateral security for Federal reserve notes.
[12 USC 347a. As added by act of Feb. 27, 1932 (47 Stat. 56).]

2. Foreign Obligations as Security for Advances
No obligations of any foreign government, individual, partnership, association, or corporation organized under the laws thereof shall be eligible as collateral security for advances under this section.
[12 USC 347a. As added by act of Feb. 27, 1932 (47 Stat. 56).]

3. Authority of Member Banks to Obligate Themselves
No obligations of any foreign government, individual, partnership, association, or corporation organized under the laws thereof shall be eligible as collateral security for advances under this section.
[12 USC 347a. As added by act of Feb. 27, 1932 (47 Stat. 56).]

* Previously section 10(a), this section was redesignated by act of Dec. 19, 1991 (105 Stat. 2279).

Section 10B. Advances to Individual Member Banks *

(a) Any Federal Reserve bank, under rules and regulations prescribed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, may make advances to any member bank on its time or demand notes having maturities of not more than four months and which are secured to the satisfaction of such Federal Reserve bank. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any Federal Reserve bank, under rules and regulations prescribed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, may make advances to any member bank on its time notes having such maturities as the Board may prescribe and which are secured by mortgage loans covering a one-to-four family residence. Such advances shall bear interest at a rate equal to the lowest discount rate in effect at such Federal Reserve bank on the date of such note.

[12 USC 347b(a). As added by act of Feb. 27, 1932 (47 Stat. 56); and amended by acts of Feb. 3, 1933 (47 Stat. 794); March 9, 1933 (48 Stat. 7); Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 705); Oct. 18, 1974 (88 Stat. 1368); March 31, 1980 (94 Stat. 140); and Dec. 19, 1991 (105 Stat. 2279).]

Limitations on Advances

(b)
1. Except as provided in paragraph (2), no advances to any undercapitalized depository institution by any Federal Reserve bank under this section may be outstanding for more than 60 days in any 120-day period.
2.A. If– i. the head of the appropriate Federal banking agency certifies in advance in writing to the Federal Reserve bank that any depository institution is viable; or
ii. (ii)the Board conducts an examination of any depository institution and the Chairman of the Board certifies in writing to the Federal Reserve bank that the institution is viable, the limitation contained in paragraph (1) shall not apply during the 60-day period beginning on the date such certification is received.

B. The 60-day period may be extended for additional 60-day periods upon receipt by the Federal Reserve bank of additional written certifications under subparagraph (A) with respect to each such additional period.
C. The authority of the head of any agency to issue a written certification of viability under this paragraph may not be delegated to any other person.
D. Notwithstanding paragraph (1), an undercapitalized depository institution which does not have a certificate of viability in effect under this paragraph may have advances outstanding for more than 60 days in any 120-day period if the Board elects to treat– i. such institution as critically undercapitalized under paragraph (3); and
ii. any such advance as an advance described in subparagraph (A)(i) of paragraph (3).

A. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, if– i. in the case of any critically undercapitalized depository institution– I. any advance under this section to such institution is outstanding without payment having been demanded as of the end of the 5-day period beginning on the date the institution becomes a critically undercapitalized depository institution; or
II. any new advance is made to such institution under this section after the end of such period; and

ii. after the end of that 5-day period, the Deposit Insurance Fund of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation incurs a loss exceeding the loss that the Corporation would have incurred if it had liquidated that institution as of the end of that period the Board shall, subject to the limitations in subparagraph (B), be liable to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation for the excess loss, without regard to the terms of the advance or any collateral pledged to secure the advance.

B. The liability of the Board under subparagraph (A) shall not exceed the lesser of the following: i. The amount of the loss the Board or any Federal Reserve bank would have incurred on the increases in the amount of advances made after the 5-day period referred to in subparagraph (A) if those increased advances had been unsecured.
ii. The interest received on the increases in the amount of advances made after the 5-day period referred to in subparagraph (A).

C. The Board shall pay the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation the amount of any liability of the Board under subparagraph (A).
D. The Board shall report to the Congress on any excess loss liability it incurs under subparagraph (A), as limited by subparagraph (B)(i), and the reasons therefore, not later than 6 months after incurring the liability.

3. A Federal Reserve bank shall have no obligation to make, increase, renew, or extend any advance or discount under this Act to any depository institution.
4.A. The term “appropriate Federal banking agency” has the same meaning as in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act.
B. The term “critically undercapitalized” has the same meaning as in section 38 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act.
C. The term “depository institution” has the same meaning as in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act.
D. The term “undercapitalized depository institution” means any depository institution which– i. is undercapitalized, as defined in section 38 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act; or
ii. has a composite CAMEL rating of 5 under the Uniform Financial Institutions Rating System (or an equivalent rating by any such agency under a comparable rating system) as of the most recent examination of such institution.

E. A depository institution is “viable” if the Board or the appropriate Federal banking agency determines, giving due regard to the economic conditions and circumstances in the market in which the institution operates, that the institution– i. is not critically undercapitalized;
ii. is not expected to become critically undercapitalized; and
iii. is not expected to be placed in conservatorship or receivership.

[12 USC 347b(b). As added by act of Dec. 19, 1991 (105 Stat. 2279) and amended by act of Feb. 15, 2006 (119 Stat. 3616).]

* Previously section 10(b), this section was redesignated by act of Dec. 19, 1991 (105 Stat. 2279).

Section 11. Powers of Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System

The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall be authorized and empowered:

Examinations and Reports

(a)
1. To examine at its discretion the accounts, books, and affairs of each Federal reserve bank and of each member bank and to require such statements and reports as it may deem necessary. The said board shall publish once each week a statement showing the condition of each Federal reserve bank and a consolidated statement for all Federal reserve banks. Such statements shall show in detail the assets and liabilities of the Federal reserve banks, single and combined, and shall furnish full information regarding the character of the money held as reserve and the amount, nature, and maturities of the paper and other investments owned or held by Federal reserve banks.
2. To require any depository institution specified in this paragraph to make, at such intervals as the Board may prescribe, such reports of its liabilities and assets as the Board may determine to be necessary or desirable to enable the Board to discharge its responsibility to monitor and control monetary and credit aggregates. Such reports shall be made (A) directly to the Board in the case of member banks and in the case of other depository institutions whose reserve requirements under section 19 of this Act exceed zero, and (B) for all other reports to the Board through the (i) Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation in the case of insured State savings associations that are insured depository institutions (as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act), State nonmember banks, savings banks, and mutual savings banks, (ii) National Credit Union Administration Board in the case of insured credit unions, (iii) the Comptroller of the Currency in the case of any Federal savings association which is an insured depository institution (as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) or which is a member as defined in section 2 of the Federal Home Loan Bank Act, and (iv) such State officer or agency as the Board may designate in the case of any other type of bank, savings association, or credit union. The Board shall endeavor to avoid the imposition of unnecessary burdens on reporting institutions and the duplication of other reporting requirements. Except as otherwise required by law, any data provided to any department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States pursuant to other reporting requirements shall be made available to the Board. The Board may classify depository institutions for the purposes of this paragraph and may impose different requirements on each such class.

[12 USC 248(a). As amended by acts of March 31, 1980 (94 Stat. 132); Aug. 9, 1989 (103 Stat. 439); and July 21, 2010 (124 Stat. 1556).]

Rediscounts by One Reserve Bank for Another

(b) To permit, or, on the affirmative vote of at least five members of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System to require Federal reserve banks to rediscount the discounted paper of other Federal reserve banks at rates of interest to be fixed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

[12 USC 248(b). Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

Suspension of Reserve Requirements

(c) To suspend for a period not exceeding thirty days, and from time to time to renew such suspension for periods not exceeding fifteen days, any reserve requirements specified in this Act.

[12 USC 248(c). As amended by acts of June 12, 1945 (59 Stat. 237) and March 18, 1968 (82 Stat. 50).]

Issue and Retirement of Federal Reserve Notes

(d) To supervise and regulate through the Secretary of the Treasury the issue and retirement of Federal reserve notes, except for the cancellation and destruction, and accounting with respect to such cancellation and destruction, of notes unfit for circulation, and to prescribe rules and regulations under which such notes may be delivered by the Secretary of the Treasury to the Federal reserve agents applying therefor.

[12 USC 248(d). As amended by acts of May 20, 1966 (80 Stat. 161) and Sept. 23, 1994 (108 Stat. 2293). For provisions governing the issue of Federal Reserve notes, see section 16.]

Reclassification of Reserve Cities

(e) To add to the number of cities classified as reserve cities under existing law in which national banking associations are subject to the reserve requirements set forth in section twenty of this Act; or to reclassifying existing reserve cities or to terminate their designation as such.

[12 USC 248(e). As amended by act of July 28, 1959 (73 Stat. 264), effective July 28, 1962. The reference to "section twenty" is an error in the law and should correctly refer to "section nineteen."]

Suspension or Removal of Officers and Directors of Reserve Banks

(f) To suspend or remove any officer or director of any Federal reserve bank, the cause of such removal to be forthwith communicated in writing by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System to the removed officer or director and to said bank.

[12 USC 248(f). Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

Charging Off Losses of Reserve Banks

(g) To require the writing off of doubtful or worthless assets upon the books and balance sheets of Federal reserve banks.

[12 USC 248(g). Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

Suspension, Liquidation, or Reorganization of Reserve Banks

(h) To suspend, for the violation of any of the provisions of this Act, the operations of any Federal reserve bank, to take possession thereof, administer the same during the period of suspension, and, when deemed advisable, to liquidate or reorganize such bank.

[12 USC 248(h). Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

Rules and Regulations

(i) To require bonds of Federal reserve agents, to make regulations for the safeguarding of all collateral, bonds, Federal reserve notes, money or property of any kind deposited in the hands of such agents, and said board shall perform the duties, functions, or services specified in this Act, and make all rules and regulations necessary to enable said board effectively to perform the same.

[12 USC 248(i). Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

Supervision Over Reserve Banks

(j) To exercise general supervision over said Federal reserve banks.

[12 USC 248(j). Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

Delegation of Functions

(k) To delegate, by published order or rule and subject to the Administrative Procedure Act, any of its functions, other than those relating to rulemaking or pertaining principally to monetary and credit policies, to one or more administrative law judges, members or employees of the Board, or Federal Reserve banks. The assignment of responsibility for the performance of any function that the Board determines to delegate shall be a function of the Chairman. The Board shall, upon the vote of one member, review action taken at a delegated level within such time and in such manner as the Board shall by rule prescribe. The Board of Governors may not delegate to a Federal reserve bank its functions for the establishment of policies for the supervision and regulation of depository institution holding companies and other financial firms supervised by the Board of Governors.

[12 USC 248(k). As added by the acts of Nov. 5, 1966 (80 Stat. 1314); March 27, 1978 (92 Stat. 183); and July 21, 2010 (124 Stat. 2126).]

Employees of Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System

(l) To employ such attorneys, experts, assistants, clerks, or other employees as may be deemed necessary to conduct the business of the board. All salaries and fees shall be fixed in advance by said board and shall be paid in the same manner as the salaries of the members of said board. All such attorneys, experts, assistants, clerks, and other employees shall be appointed without regard to the provisions of the Act of January sixteenth, eighteen hundred and eighty-three (volume twenty-two, United States Statutes at large, page four hundred and three), and amendments thereto, or any rule or regulation made in pursuance thereof: Provided, That nothing herein shall prevent the President from placing said employees in the classified service.

[12 USC 248(l). Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

Loans by Member Banks on Stock or Bond Collateral

[Subsection (m) (12 USC 248(m)) was repealed by act of Nov. 12, 1999 (113 Stat. 1479).]

Examination of Depository Institutions and Affiliates

(n) To examine, at the Board’s discretion, any depository institution, and any affiliate of such depository institution, in connection with any advance to, any discount of any instrument for, or any request for any such advance or discount by, such depository institution under this Act.

[12 USC 248(n). As added by act of Dec. 19, 1991. The original subsection (n), which authorized the Secretary of the Treasury, as necessary, to require the payment and delivery of all gold coin, gold bullion, and gold certificates to the Treasurer of the United States in exchange for another form of U.S. currency, was repealed by act of Sept. 13, 1982 (96 Stat. 1068).]

Appointment of Conservator or Receiver

(o) The Board may appoint the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as conservator or receiver for a State member bank under section 11(c)(9) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act.

[12 USC 248(o). As added by act of Dec. 19, 1991 (105 Stat. 2273) and redesignated by act of Oct. 28, 1992 (106 Stat. 4080).]

Authority

(p) The Board may act in its own name and through its own attorneys in enforcing any provision of this title, regulations promulgated hereunder, or any other law or regulation, or in any action, suit, or proceeding to which the Board is a party and which involves the Board’s regulation or supervision of any bank, bank holding company (as defined in section 2 of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956), or other entity, or the administration of its operations.

[12 USC 248(p). As added by act of Sept. 23, 1994 (108 Stat. 2232).]

Uniform Protection Authority for Federal Reserve Facilities

(q)
1. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, to authorize personnel to act as law enforcement officers to protect and safeguard the premises, grounds, property, personnel, including members of the Board, of the Board, or any Federal reserve bank, and operations conducted by or on behalf of the Board or a reserve bank.
2. The Board may, subject to the regulations prescribed under paragraph (5), delegate authority to a Federal reserve bank to authorize personnel to act as law enforcement officers to protect and safeguard the bank’s premises, grounds, property, personnel, and operations conducted by or on behalf of the bank.
3. Law enforcement officers designated or authorized by the Board or a reserve bank under paragraph (1) or (2) are authorized while on duty to carry firearms and make arrests without warrants for any offense against the United States committed in their presence, or for any felony cognizable under the laws of the United States committed or being committed within the buildings and grounds of the Board or a reserve bank if they have reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested has committed or is committing such a felony. Such officers shall have access to law enforcement information that may be necessary for the protection of the property or personnel of the Board or a reserve bank.
4. For purposes of this subsection, the term “law enforcement officers” means personnel who have successfully completed law enforcement training and are authorized to carry firearms and make arrests pursuant to this subsection.
5. The law enforcement authorities provided for in this subsection may be exercised only pursuant to regulations prescribed by the Board and approved by the Attorney General.

[12 USC 248(q). As added by act of Oct. 26, 2001 (115 Stat. 333).]

Authority of Board When Sufficient Number of Members Are Not in Office or Available

(r)
1. Any action that this Act provides may be taken only upon the affirmative vote of 5 members of the Board may be taken upon the unanimous vote of all members then in office if there are fewer than 5 members in office at the time of the action. A. Any action that the Board is otherwise authorized to take under section 13(3) may be taken upon the unanimous vote of all available members then in office, if– i. at least 2 members are available and all available members participate in the action;
ii. the available members unanimously determine that– I. unusual and exigent circumstances exist and the borrower is unable to secure adequate credit accommodations from other sources;
II. action on the matter is necessary to prevent, correct, or mitigate serious harm to the economy or the stability of the financial system of the United States;
III. despite the use of all means available (including all available telephonic, telegraphic, and other electronic means), the other members of the Board have not been able to be contacted on the matter; and
IV. action on the matter is required before the number of Board members otherwise required to vote on the matter can be contacted through any available means (including all available telephonic, telegraphic, and other electronic means); and

iii. any credit extended by a Federal reserve bank pursuant to such action is payable upon demand of the Board.

B. The available members of the Board shall document in writing the determinations required by subparagraph (A)(ii), and such written findings shall be included in the record of the action and in the official minutes of the Board, and copies of such record shall be provided as soon as practicable to the members of the Board who were not available to participate in the action and to the Chairman of the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate and to the Chairman of the Committee on Financial Services of the House of Representatives.

[12 USC 248(r). As added by act of November 26, 2002 (116 Stat. 2340).]

Federal Reserve Transparency and Release of Information

(s)
1. In general. In order to ensure the disclosure in a timely manner consistent with the purposes of this Act of information concerning the borrowers and counterparties participating in emergency credit facilities, discount window lending programs, and open market operations authorized or conducted by the Board or a Federal reserve bank, the Board of Governors shall disclose, as provided in paragraph (2)— A.the names and identifying details of each borrower, participant, or counterparty in any credit facility or covered transaction;
B. the amount borrowed by or transferred by or to a specific borrower, participant, or counterparty in any credit facility or covered transaction;
C. the interest rate or discount paid by each borrower, participant, or counterparty in any credit facility or covered transaction; and
D. information identifying the types and amounts of collateral pledged or assets transferred in connection with participation in any credit facility or covered transaction.

2. Mandatory release date. In the case of— A.a credit facility, the Board shall disclose the information described in paragraph (1) on the date that is 1 year after the effective date of the termination by the Board of the authorization of the credit facility; and
B. a covered transaction, the Board shall disclose the information described in paragraph (1) on the last day of the eighth calendar quarter following the calendar quarter in which the covered transaction was conducted.

3. Earlier release date authorized. The Chairman of the Board may publicly release the information described in paragraph (1) before the relevant date specified in paragraph (2), if the Chairman determines that such disclosure would be in the public interest and would not harm the effectiveness of the relevant credit facility or the purpose or conduct of covered transactions.
4. Definitions. For purposes of this subsection, the following definitions shall apply: A. Credit facility. The term “credit facility” has the same meaning as in section 714(f)(1)(A) of title 31, United States Code.
B. Covered transaction. The term “covered transaction” means— i.any open market transaction with a nongovernmental third party conducted under the first undesignated paragraph of section 14 or subparagraph (a), (b), or (c) of the 2nd undesignated paragraph of such section, after the date of enactment of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act; and
ii. any advance made under section 10B after the date of enactment of that Act.

5. Termination of credit facility by operation of law. A credit facility shall be deemed to have terminated as of the end of the 24-month period beginning on the date on which the credit facility ceases to make extensions of credit and loans, unless the credit facility is otherwise terminated by the Board before such date.
6. Consistent treatment of information. Except as provided in this subsection or section 13(3)(D), or in section 714(f)(3)(C) of title 31, United States Code, the information described in paragraph (1) and information concerning the transactions described in section 714(f) of such title, shall be confidential, including for purposes of section 552(b)(3) of title 5 of such Code, until the relevant mandatory release date described in paragraph (2), unless the Chairman of the Board determines that earlier disclosure of such information would be in the public interest and would not harm the effectiveness of the relevant credit facility or the purpose of conduct of the relevant transactions.
7. Protection of personal privacy. This subsection and section 13(3)(C), section 714(f)(3)(C) of title 31, United States Code, and subsection (a) or (c) of section 1109 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act shall not be construed as requiring any disclosure of nonpublic personal information (as defined for purposes of section 502 of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (12 U.S.C. 6802)) concerning any individual who is referenced in collateral pledged or assets transferred in connection with a credit facility or covered transaction, unless the person is a borrower, participant, or counterparty under the credit facility or covered transaction.
8. Study of FOIA exemption impact. A. Study. The Inspector General of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall— i.conduct a study on the impact that the exemption from section 552(b)(3) of title 5 (known as the Freedom of Information Act) established under paragraph (6) has had on the ability of the public to access information about the administration by the Board of Governors of emergency credit facilities, discount window lending programs, and open market operations; and
ii. make any recommendations on whether the exemption described in clause (i) should remain in effect.

B. Report. Not later than 30 months after the date of enactment of this section, the Inspector General of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall submit a report on the findings of the study required under subparagraph (A) to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Financial Services of the House of Representatives, and publish the report on the website of the Board.

9. Rule of construction. Nothing in this section is meant to affect any pending litigation or lawsuit filed under section 552 of title 5, United States Code (popularly known as the Freedom of Information Act), on or before the date of enactment of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.

[12 USC 248(s). As added by act of July 21, 2010 (124 Stat. 2118).]

Assessments, Fees, and Other Charges for Certain Companies

[t](s)*
1. In general. The Board shall collect a total amount of assessments, fees, or other charges from the companies described in paragraph (2) that is equal to the total expenses the Board estimates are necessary or appropriate to carry out the supervisory and regulatory responsibilities of the Board with respect to such companies.
2. Companies. The companies described in this paragraph are— A.all bank holding companies having total consolidated assets of $50,000,000,000 or more;
B. all savings and loan holding companies having total consolidated assets of $50,000,000,000 or more; and
C. all nonbank financial companies supervised by the Board under section 113 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.

[12 USC 248(s). As added by act of July 21, 2010 (124 Stat. 1527).]

* There are two subsections designated as (s), as enacted by act of July 21, 2010 (124 Stat. 1527, 2118); the second of these should probably be designated as subsection (t).

Section 11A. Pricing of Services
(a) Not later than the first day of the sixth month after the date of enactment of the Monetary Control Act of 1980, the Board shall publish for public comment a set of pricing principles in accordance with this section and a proposed schedule of fees based upon those principles for Federal Reserve bank services to depository institutions, and not later than the first day of the eighteenth month after the date of enactment of the Monetary Control Act of 1980, the Board shall begin to put into effect a schedule of fees for such services which is based on those principles.
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(b) The services which shall be covered by the schedule of fees under subsection (a) are– 1.currency and coin services;
2.check clearing and collection services;
3.wire transfer services;
4.automated clearinghouse services;
5.settlement services;
6.securities safekeeping services;
7.Federal Reserve float; and
8.any new services which the Federal Reserve System offers, including but not limited to payment services to effectuate the electronic transfer of funds.

(c) The schedule of fees prescribed pursuant to this section shall be based on the following principles: 1.All Federal Reserve bank services covered by the fee schedule shall be priced explicitly.
2.All Federal Reserve bank services covered by the fee schedule shall be available to nonmember depository institutions and such services shall be priced at the same fee schedule applicable to member banks, except that nonmembers shall be subject to any other terms, including a requirement of balances sufficient for clearing purposes, that the Board may determine are applicable to member banks.
3.Over the long run, fees shall be established on the basis of all direct and indirect costs actually incurred in providing the Federal Reserve services priced, including interest on items credited prior to actual collection, overhead, and an allocation of imputed costs which takes into account the taxes that would have been paid and the return on capital that would have been provided had the services been furnished by a private business firm, except that the pricing principles shall give due regard to competitive factors and the provision of an adequate level of such services nationwide.
4.Interest on items credited prior to collection shall be charged at the current rate applicable in the market for Federal funds.

(d) The Board shall require reductions in the operating budgets of the Federal Reserve banks commensurate with any actual or projected decline in the volume of services to be provided by such banks. The full amount of any savings so realized shall be paid into the United States Treasury.
(e) All depository institutions, as defined in section 19(b)(1) (12 U.S.C. 461(b)(1)), may receive for deposit and as deposits any evidences of transaction accounts, as defined by section 19(b)(1) (12 U.S.C. 461(b)(1)) from other depository institutions, as defined in section 19(b)(1) (12 U.S.C. 461(b)(1)) or from any office of any Federal Reserve bank without regard to any Federal or State law restricting the number or the physical location or locations of such depository institutions.
[12 USC 248a. As added by acts of March 31, 1980 (94 Stat. 140) and Aug. 10, 1987 (101 Stat. 652).]

Section 11B. Annual Independent Audits of Federal Reserve Banks and Board
The Board shall order an annual independent audit of the financial statements of each Federal reserve bank and the Board.
[12 USC 248b. As added by act of Nov. 12, 1999 (113 Stat. 1475).]

Section 12. Federal Advisory Council

1. Creation, Members, and Meetings
There is hereby created a Federal Advisory Council, which shall consist of as many members as there are Federal reserve districts. Each Federal reserve bank by its board of directors shall annually select from its own Federal reserve district one member of said council, who shall receive such compensation and allowances as may be fixed by his board of directors subject to the approval of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The meetings of said advisory council shall be held at Washington, District of Columbia, at least four times each year, and oftener if called by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The council may in addition to the meetings above provided for hold such other meetings in Washington, District of Columbia, or elsewhere, as it may deem necessary, may select its own officers and adopt its own methods of procedure, and a majority of its members shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. Vacancies in the council shall be filled by the respective reserve banks, and members selected to fill vacancies, shall serve for the unexpired term.
[12 USC 261. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

2. Powers
The Federal Advisory Council shall have power, by itself or through its officers, (1) to confer directly with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System on general business conditions; (2) to make oral or written representations concerning matters within the jurisdiction of said board; (3) to call for information and to make recommendations in regard to discount rates, rediscount business, note issues, reserve conditions in the various districts, the purchase and sale of gold or securities by reserve banks, open-market operations by said banks, and the general affairs of the reserve banking system.
[12 USC 262. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

Section 12A. Federal Open Market Committee

Creation, Members, and Meetings
(a) There is hereby created a Federal Open Market Committee (hereinafter referred to as the “Committee”), which shall consist of the members of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and five representatives of the Federal Reserve banks to be selected as hereinafter provided. Such representatives shall be presidents or first vice presidents of Federal Reserve banks and, beginning with the election for the term commencing March 1, 1943, shall be elected annually as follows: One by the board of directors of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, one by the boards of directors of the Federal Reserve Banks of Boston, Philadelphia, and Richmond, one by the boards of directors of the Federal Reserve Banks of Cleveland and Chicago, one by the boards of directors of the Federal Reserve Banks of Atlanta, Dallas, and St. Louis, and one by the boards of directors of the Federal Reserve Banks of Minneapolis, Kansas City, and San Francisco. In such elections each board of directors shall have one vote; and the details of such elections may be governed by regulations prescribed by the committee, which may be amended from time to time. An alternate to serve in the absence of each such representative shall likewise be a president or first vice president of a Federal Reserve bank and shall be elected annually in the same manner. The meetings of said committee shall be held at Washington, District of Columbia, at least four times each year upon the call of the chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System or at the request of any three members of the Committee.
[12 USC 263(a). As added by act of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 168); completely revised by act of Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 705); and further amended by act of July 7, 1942 (56 Stat. 647).]

Participation of Reserve Banks; Regulations of Committee
(b) No Federal Reserve bank shall engage or decline to engage in open-market operations under section 14 of this Act except in accordance with the direction of and regulations adopted by the Committee. The Committee shall consider, adopt, and transmit to the several Federal Reserve banks, regulations relating to the open-market transactions of such banks.
[12 USC 263(b). As added by act of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 168); and amended by act of Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 706).]

Governing Principles
(c) The time, character, and volume of all purchases and sales of paper described in section 14 of this Act as eligible for open-market operations shall be governed with a view to accommodating commerce and business and with regard to their bearing upon the general credit situation of the country.
[12 USC 263(c). As added by act of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 168); and reenacted without change by act of Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 706).]

Section 13. Powers of Federal Reserve Banks

1. Receipt of Deposits and Collections

Any Federal reserve bank may receive from any of its member banks, or other depository institutions, and from the United States, deposits of current funds in lawful money, national-bank notes, Federal reserve notes, or checks, and drafts, payable upon presentation, or other items, and also, for collection, maturing notes and bills; or, solely for purposes of exchange or of collection, may receive from other Federal reserve banks deposits of current funds in lawful money, national-bank notes, or checks upon other Federal reserve banks, and checks and drafts, payable upon presentation within its district, or other items, and maturing notes and bills payable within its district; or, solely for the purposes of exchange or of collection, may receive from any nonmember bank or trust company or other depository institution deposits of current funds in lawful money, national-bank notes, Federal reserve notes, checks and drafts payable upon presentation or other items, or maturing notes and bills: Provided, Such nonmember bank or trust company or other depository institution maintains with the Federal reserve bank of its district a balance in such amount as the Board determines taking into account items in transit, services provided by the Federal Reserve Bank, and other factors as the Board may deem appropriate; Provided further, That nothing in this or any other section of this Act shall be construed as prohibiting a member or nonmember bank or other depository institution from making reasonable charges, to be determined and regulated by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, but in no case to exceed 10 cents per $100 or fraction thereof, based on the total of checks and drafts presented at any one time, for collection or payment of checks and drafts and remission therefor by exchange or otherwise; but no such charges shall be made against the Federal reserve banks.

[12 USC 342. As amended by act of Sept. 7, 1916 (39 Stat. 752), which completely revised this section; June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 234); and March 31, 1980 (94 Stat. 139). With respect to the receipt by Reserve Banks of checks and drafts on deposit, see also section 16.]

2. Discount of Commercial, Agricultural, and Industrial Paper

Upon the indorsement of any of its member banks, which shall be deemed a waiver of demand, notice and protest by such bank as to its own indorsement exclusively, any Federal reserve bank may discount notes, drafts, and bills of exchange arising out of actual commercial transactions; that is, notes, drafts, and bills of exchange issued or drawn for agricultural, industrial, or commercial purposes, or the proceeds of which have been used, or are to be used, for such purposes, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System to have the right to determine or define the character of the paper thus eligible for discount, within the meaning of this Act. Nothing in this Act contained shall be construed to prohibit such notes, drafts, and bills of exchange, secured by staple agricultural products, or other goods, wares, or merchandise from being eligible for such discount, and the notes, drafts, and bills of exchange of factors issued as such making advances exclusively to producers of staple agricultural products in their raw state shall be eligible for such discount; but such definition shall not include notes, drafts, or bills covering merely investments or issued or drawn for the purpose of carrying or trading in stocks, bonds, or other investment securities, except bonds and notes of the government of the United States. Notes, drafts, and bills admitted to discount under the terms of this paragraph must have a maturity at the time of discount of not more than 90 days, exclusive of grace.

[12 USC 343. As amended by act of Sept. 7, 1916 (39 Stat. 752), which completely revised this section; and by act of March 4, 1923 (42 Stat. 1478). As used in this paragraph the phrase "bonds and notes of Government of the United States" includes Treasury bills or certificates of indebtedness. (See act of June 17, 1929, amending section 5 of Second Liberty Bond Act of Sept. 24, 1917). As to eligibility for discount under this paragraph of notes representing loans to finance building construction, see this act, section 24).]

3. Discounts for Individuals, Partnerships, and Corporations
A. In unusual and exigent circumstances, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, by the affirmative vote of not less than five members, may authorize any Federal reserve bank, during such periods as the said board may determine, at rates established in accordance with the provisions of section 14, subdivision (d), of this Act, to discount for any participant in any program or facility with broad-based eligibility, notes, drafts, and bills of exchange when such notes, drafts, and bills of exchange are indorsed or otherwise secured to the satisfaction of the Federal Reserve bank: Provided, That before discounting any such note, draft, or bill of exchange, the Federal reserve bank shall obtain evidence that such participant in any program or facility with broad-based eligibility is unable to secure adequate credit accommodations from other banking institutions. All such discounts for any participant in any program or facility with broad-based eligibility shall be subject to such limitations, restrictions, and regulations as the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may prescribe.
B. i. As soon as is practicable after the date of enactment of this subparagraph, the Board shall establish, by regulation, in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury, the policies and procedures governing emergency lending under this paragraph. Such policies and procedures shall be designed to ensure that any emergency lending program or facility is for the purpose of providing liquidity to the financial system, and not to aid a failing financial company, and that the security for emergency loans is sufficient to protect taxpayers from losses and that any such program is terminated in a timely and orderly fashion. The policies and procedures established by the Board shall require that a Federal reserve bank assign, consistent with sound risk management practices and to ensure protection for the taxpayer, a lendable value to all collateral for a loan executed by a Federal reserve bank under this paragraph in determining whether the loan is secured satisfactorily for purposes of this paragraph.
ii. The Board shall establish procedures to prohibit borrowing from programs and facilities by borrowers that are insolvent. Such procedures may include a certification from the chief executive officer (or other authorized officer) of the borrower, at the time the borrower initially borrows under the program or facility (with a duty by the borrower to update the certification if the information in the certification materially changes), that the borrower is not insolvent. A borrower shall be considered insolvent for purposes of this subparagraph, if the borrower is in bankruptcy, resolution under title II of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, or any other Federal or State insolvency proceeding.
iii. A program or facility that is structured to remove assets from the balance sheet of a single and specific company, or that is established for the purpose of assisting a single and specific company avoid bankruptcy, resolution under title II of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, or any other Federal or State insolvency proceeding, shall not be considered a program or facility with broad-based eligibility.
iv. The Board may not establish any program or facility under this paragraph without the prior approval of the Secretary of the Treasury.

C. The Board shall provide to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Financial Services of the House of Representatives— i.not later than 7 days after the Board authorizes any loan or other financial assistance under this paragraph, a report that includes— I.the justification for the exercise of authority to provide such assistance;
II. the identity of the recipients of such assistance;
III. the date and amount of the assistance, and form in which the assistance was provided; and
IV. the material terms of the assistance, including— aa. duration;
bb. collateral pledged and the value thereof;
cc. all interest, fees, and other revenue or items of value to be received in exchange for the assistance;
dd. any requirements imposed on the recipient with respect to employee compensation, distribution of dividends, or any other corporate decision in exchange for the assistance; and
ee. the expected costs to the taxpayers of such assistance; and

ii. once every 30 days, with respect to any outstanding loan or other financial assistance under this paragraph, written updates on— I.the value of collateral;
II. the amount of interest, fees, and other revenue or items of value received in exchange for the assistance; and
III. the expected or final cost to the taxpayers of such assistance.

D. The information required to be submitted to Congress under subparagraph (C) related to— i.the identity of the participants in an emergency lending program or facility commenced under this paragraph;
ii. the amounts borrowed by each participant in any such program or facility;
iii. identifying details concerning the assets or collateral held by, under, or in connection with such a program or facility, shall be kept confidential, upon the written request of the Chairman of the Board, in which case such information shall be made available only to the Chairpersons or Ranking Members of the Committees described in subparagraph (C).

E. If an entity to which a Federal reserve bank has provided a loan under this paragraph becomes a covered financial company, as defined in section 201 of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, at any time while such loan is outstanding, and the Federal reserve bank incurs a realized net loss on the loan, then the Federal reserve bank shall have a claim equal to the amount of the net realized loss against the covered entity, with the same priority as an obligation to the Secretary of the Treasury under section 210(b) of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act.

[12 USC 343. As added by act of July 21, 1932 (47 Stat. 715); and amended by acts of Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 714); Dec. 19, 1991 (105 Stat. 2386); and July 21, 2010 (124 Stat. 2113). As enacted by Public Law 111-203 (124. Stat. 2115), “any reference in any provision of Federal law to the third undesignated paragraph of section 13 of the Federal Reserve Act [FRA] (12 USC 343) shall be deemed to be a reference to section 13(3) of the FRA.”]

4. Discount or Purchase of Sight Drafts

Upon the indorsement of any of its member banks, which shall be deemed a waiver of demand, notice, and protest by such bank as to its own indorsement exclusively, and subject to regulations and limitations to be prescribed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, any Federal reserve bank may discount or purchase bills of exchange payable at sight or on demand which grow out of the domestic shipment or the exportation of nonperishable, readily marketable agricultural and other staples and are secured by bills of lading or other shipping documents conveying or securing title to such staples: Provided, That all such bills of exchange shall be forwarded promptly for collection, and demand for payment shall be made with reasonable promptness after the arrival of such staples at their destination: Provided further, that no such bill shall in any event be held by or for the account of a Federal reserve bank for a period in excess of ninety days. In discounting such bills Federal reserve banks may compute the interest to be deducted on the basis of the estimated life of each bill and adjust the discount after payment of such bills to conform to the actual life thereof.

[12 USC 344. As added by act of March 4, 1923 (42 Stat. 1479); and amended by act of May 29, 1928 (45 Stat. 975).]

5. Limitation on Discount of Paper of One Borrower

The aggregate of notes, drafts, and bills upon which any person, copartnership, association, or corporation is liable as maker, acceptor, indorser, drawer, or guarantor, rediscounted for any member bank, shall at no time exceed the amount for which such person, copartnership, association, or corporation may lawfully become liable to a national banking association under the terms of section 5200 of the Revised Statutes, as amended: Provided, however, That nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to change the character or class of paper now eligible for rediscount by Federal reserve banks.

[12 USC 345. As reenacted without change by act of March 3, 1915 (38 Stat. 958); and amended by act of Sept. 7, 1916 (39 Stat. 752), which completely revised this section; and by act of April 12, 1930 (46 Stat. 162).]

6. Discount of Acceptances

Any Federal reserve bank may discount acceptances of the kinds hereinafter described, which have a maturity at the time of discount of not more than 90 days’ sight, exclusive of days of grace, and which are indorsed by at least one member bank: Provided, That such acceptances if drawn for an agricultural purpose and secured at the time of acceptance by warehouse receipts or other such documents conveying or securing title covering readily marketable staples may be discounted with a maturity at the time of discount of not more than six months’ sight exclusive of days of grace.

[12 USC 346. As amended by act of March 3, 1915 (38 Stat. 958); by act of Sept. 7, 1916 (39 Stat. 752), which completely revised this section; and by act of March 4, 1923 (42 Stat. 1479).]

7. Banker’s Acceptances
A. Any member bank and any Federal or State branch or agency of a foreign bank subject to reserve requirements under section 7 of the International Banking Act of 1978 (hereinafter in this paragraph referred to as “institutions”), may accept drafts or bills of exchange drawn upon it having not more than six months’ sight to run, exclusive of days of grace– i. which grow out of transactions involving the importation or exportation of goods;
ii. which grow out of transactions involving the domestic shipment of goods; or
iii. which are secured at the time of acceptance by a warehouse receipt or other such document conveying or securing title covering readily marketable staples.

B. Except as provided in subparagraph (C), no institution shall accept such bills, or be obligated for a participation share in such bills, in an amount equal at any time in the aggregate to more than 150 per centum of its paid up and unimpaired capital stock and surplus or, in the case of a United States branch or agency of a foreign bank, its dollar equivalent as determined by the Board under subparagraph (H).
C. The Board, under such conditions as it may prescribe, may authorize, by regulation or order, any institution to accept such bills, or be obligated for a participation share in such bills, in an amount not exceeding at any time in the aggregate 200 per centum of its paid up and unimpaired capital stock and surplus or, in the case of a United States branch or agency of a foreign bank, its dollar equivalent as determined by the Board under subparagraph (H).
D. Notwithstanding subparagraphs (B) and (C), with respect to any institution, the aggregate acceptances, including obligations for a participation share in such acceptances, growing out of domestic transactions shall not exceed 50 per centum of the aggregate of all acceptances, including obligations for a participation share in such acceptances, authorized for such institution under this paragraph.
E. No institution shall accept bills, or be obligated for a participation share in such bills, whether in a foreign or domestic transaction, for any one person, partnership, corporation, association or other entity in an amount equal at any time in the aggregate to more than 10 per centum of its paid up and unimpaired capital stock and surplus, or, in the case of a United States branch or agency of a foreign bank, its dollar equivalent as determined by the Board under subparagraph (H), unless the institution is secured either by attached documents or by some other actual security growing out of the same transaction as the acceptance.
F. With respect to an institution which issues an acceptance, the limitations contained in this paragraph shall not apply to that portion of an acceptance which is issued by such institution and which is covered by a participation agreement sold to another institution.
G. In order to carry out the purposes of this paragraph, the Board may define any of the terms used in this paragraph, and, with respect to institutions which do not have capital or capital stock, the Board shall define an equivalent measure to which the limitations contained in this paragraph shall apply.
H. Any limitation or restriction in this paragraph based on paid-up and unimpaired capital stock and surplus of an institution shall be deemed to refer, with respect to a United States branch or agency of a foreign bank, to the dollar equivalent of the paid-up capital stock and surplus of the foreign bank, as determined by the Board, and if the foreign bank has more than one United States branch or agency, the business transacted by all such branches and agencies shall be aggregated in determining compliance with the limitation or restriction.

[Formerly 12 USC 372, as amended by act of March 3, 1915 (38 Stat. 958); by act of Sept. 7, 1916 (39 Stat. 752), which completely revised this section; and by acts of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 235) and Oct. 8, 1982 (96 Stat. 1239). Omitted from the U.S. Code.]

8. Advances to Member Banks on Promissory Notes

Any Federal reserve bank may make advances for periods not exceeding fifteen days to its member banks on their promissory notes secured by the deposit or pledge of bonds, notes, certificates of indebtedness, or Treasury bills of the United States, or by the deposit or pledge of debentures or other such obligations of Federal intermediate credit banks which are eligible for purchase by Federal reserve banks under section 13a of this Act, or by the deposit or pledge of bonds issued under the pro visions of subsection (c) of section 4 of the Home Owners’ Loan Act of 1933, as amended; and any Federal reserve bank may make advances for periods not exceeding ninety days to its member banks on their promissory notes secured by such notes, drafts, bills of exchange, or bankers’ acceptances as are eligible for rediscount or for purchase by Federal reserve banks under the provisions of this Act, or secured by such obligations as are eligible for purchase under section 14(b) of this Act. All such advances shall be made at rates to be established by such Federal reserve banks, such rates to be subject to the review and determination of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. If any member bank to which any such advance has been made shall, during the life or continuance of such advance, and despite an official warning of the reserve bank of the district or of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System to the contrary, increase its outstanding loans secured by collateral in the form of stocks, bonds, debentures, or other such obligations, or loans made to members of any organized stock exchange, investment house, or dealer in securities, upon any obligation, note, or bill, secured or unsecured, for the purpose of purchasing and/or carrying stocks, bonds, or other investment securities (except obligations of the United States) such advance shall be deemed immediately due and payable, and such member bank shall be ineligible as a borrower at the reserve bank of the district under the provisions of this paragraph for such period as the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall determine: Provided, That no temporary carrying or clearance loans made solely for the purpose of facilitating the purchase or delivery of securities offered for public subscription shall be included in the loans referred to in this paragraph.

[12 USC 347. As added by act of Sept. 7, 1916 (39 Stat. 753), which completely revised this section; and amended by acts of May 19, 1932 (47 Stat. 160); May 12, 1933 (48 Stat. 46); June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 180); Jan. 31, 1934 (48 Stat. 348); April 27, 1934 (48 Stat. 646); Oct. 4, 1961 (75 Stat. 773); and Sept. 21, 1968 (82 Stat. 856).]

9. Aggregate Liabilities of National Banks

Repealed by act of Oct. 15, 1982 (96 Stat. 1510).

10. Regulation by Board of Governors of Discounts, Purchases and Sales

The discount and rediscount and the purchase and sale by any Federal reserve bank of any bills receivable and of domestic and foreign bills of exchange, and of acceptances authorized by this Act, shall be subject to such restrictions, limitations, and regulations as may be imposed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

[Omitted from U.S. Code. As amended by act of Sept. 7, 1916 (39 Stat. 753), which completely revised this section.]

11. National Banks as Insurance Agents or Real Estate Loan Brokers

That in addition to the powers now vested by law in national banking associations organized under the laws of the United States any such association located and doing business in any place the population of which does not exceed five thousand inhabitants, as shown by the last preceding decennial census, may, under such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the Comptroller of the Currency, act as the agent for any fire, life, or other insurance company authorized by the authorities of the State in which said bank is located to do business in said State, by soliciting and selling insurance and collecting premiums on policies issued by such company; and may receive for services so rendered such fees or commissions as may be agreed upon between the said association and the insurance company for which it may act as agent; and may also act as the broker or agent for others in making or procuring loans on real estate located within one hundred miles of the place in which said bank may be located, receiving for such services a reasonable fee or commission: Provided, however, That no such bank shall in any case guarantee either the principal or interest of any such loans or assume or guarantee the payment of any premium on insurance policies issued through its agency by its principal: And provided further, That the bank shall not guarantee the truth of any statement made by an assured in filing his application for insurance.

[Omitted from U.S. Code. As added by act of Sept. 7, 1916 (39 Stat. 753), which completely revised this section.]

12. Bank Acceptances to Create Dollar Exchange

Any member bank may accept drafts or bills of exchange drawn upon it having not more than three months’ sight to run, exclusive of days of grace, drawn under regulations to be prescribed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System by banks or bankers in foreign countries or dependencies or insular possessions of the United States for the purpose of furnishing dollar exchange as required by the usages of trade in the respective countries, dependencies, or insular possessions. Such drafts or bills may be acquired by Federal reserve banks in such amounts and subject to such regulations, restrictions, and limitations as may be prescribed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System: Provided, however, That no member bank shall accept such drafts or bills of exchange referred to 1 this paragraph for any one bank to an amount exceeding in the aggregate ten per centum of the paid-up and unimpaired capital and surplus of the accepting bank unless the draft or bill of exchange is accompanied by documents conveying or securing title or by some other adequate security: Provided further, That no member bank shall accept such drafts or bills in an amount exceeding at any time the aggregate of one-half of its paid-up and unimpaired capital and surplus.

[Formerly 12 USC 373, as added by act of Sept. 7, 1916 (39 Stat. 754), which completely revised this section. Not codified to the Federal Reserve Act. Omitted from the U.S. Code.]

13. Advances to Individuals, Partnerships, and Corporations on Obligations of United States

Subject to such limitations, restrictions and regulations as the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may prescribe, any Federal reserve bank may make advances to any individual, partnership or corporation on the promissory notes of such individual, partnership or corporation secured by direct obligations of the United States or by any obligation which is a direct obligation of, or fully guaranteed as to principal and interest by, any agency of the United States. Such advances shall be made for periods not exceeding 90 days and shall bear interest at rates fixed from time to time by the Federal reserve bank, subject to the review and determination of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

[12 USC 347c. As added by act of March 9, 1933 (48 Stat. 7) and amended by act of Sept. 21, 1968 (82 Stat. 856).]

14. Receipt of Deposits from, Discount Paper Endorsed by, and Advances to Foreign Banks

Subject to such restrictions, limitations, and regulations as may be imposed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, each Federal Reserve bank may receive deposits from, discount paper endorsed by, and make advances to any branch or agency of a foreign bank in the same manner and to the same extent that it may exercise such powers with respect to a member bank if such branch or agency is maintaining reserves with such Reserve bank pursuant to section 7 of the International Banking Act of 1978. In exercising any such powers with respect to any such branch or agency, each Federal Reserve bank shall give due regard to account balances being maintained by such branch or agency with such Reserve bank and the proportion of the assets of such branch or agency being held as reserves under section 7 of the International Banking Act of 1978. For the purposes of this paragraph, the terms “branch”, “agency”, and “foreign bank” shall have the same meanings assigned to them in section 1 of the International Banking Act of 1978.

[12 USC 347d. As added by act of Sept. 17, 1978 (92 Stat. 621).]

1 So in original. Probably should read “referred to in this paragraph.”

Section 13A. Discount of Agricultural Paper *

1. Authority of Federal Reserve Banks to Discount Agricultural Paper
Upon the indorsement of any of its member banks, which shall be deemed a waiver of demand, notice, and protest by such bank as to its own indorsement exclusively, any Federal reserve bank may, subject to regulations and limitations to be prescribed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, discount notes, drafts, and bills of exchange issued or drawn for an agricultural purpose, or based upon live stock, and having a maturity, at the time of discount, exclusive of days of grace, not exceeding nine months, and such notes, drafts, and bills of exchange may be offered as collateral security for the issuance of Federal reserve notes under the provisions of section 16 of this Act: Provided, That notes, drafts, and bills of exchange with maturities in excess of six months shall not be eligible as a basis for the issuance of Federal reserve notes unless secured by warehouse receipts or other such negotiable documents conveying or securing title to readily marketable staple agricultural products or by chattel mortgage upon live stock which is being fattened for market.
[12 USC 348. As added by act of March 4, 1923 (42 Stat. 1479).]

2. Rediscounts for, and Discount of Notes Payable to, Federal Intermediate Credit Banks
That any Federal reserve bank may, subject to regulations and limitations to be prescribed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, rediscount such notes, drafts, and bills for any Federal Intermediate Credit Bank, except that no Federal reserve bank shall rediscount for a Federal Intermediate Credit Bank any such note or obligation which bears the indorsement of a nonmember State bank or trust company which is eligible for membership in the Federal reserve system, in accordance with section 9 of this Act. Any Federal reserve bank may also, subject to regulations and limitations to be prescribed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, discount notes payable to and bearing the indorsement of any Federal intermediate credit bank, covering loans or advances made by such bank pursuant to the provisions of section 202(a) of Title II of the Federal Farm Loan Act, as amended (U.S.C., title 12, ch. 8, sec. 1031), which have maturities at the time of discount of not more than nine months, exclusive of days of grace, and which are secured by notes, drafts, or bills of exchange eligible for rediscount by Federal Reserve banks.

[12 USC 349. As added by act of March 4, 1923 (42 Stat. 1480); and amended by act of May 19, 1932 (47 Stat. 160).]

3. Purchase and Sale of Debentures of Federal Intermediate Credit Banks
Any Federal reserve bank may also buy and sell debentures and other such obligations issued by a Federal Intermediate Credit Bank or by a National Agricultural Credit Corporation, but only to the same extent as and subject to the same limitations as those upon which it may buy and sell bonds issued under Title I of the Federal Farm Loan Act.
[12 USC 350. As added by act of March 4, 1923 (42 Stat. 1480). The meaning of the term "debentures", as used above, was affected by act of Aug. 19, 1937 (50 Stat. 718), 12 USC 1040, which provides:

"The terms 'debenture' and 'debentures', when used in any Act of Congress, whenever enacted, except the Federal Farm Loan Act, relating to the purchase, sale, or use as security, of debentures issued by or for the benefit and account of any Federal intermediate credit bank or banks, shall be deemed to mean debentures issued by any such bank individually and consolidated debentures issued by such banks acting together."]

4. Paper of Cooperative Marketing Associations
Notes, drafts, bills of exchange or acceptances issued or drawn by cooperative marketing associations composed of producers of agricultural products shall be deemed to have been issued or drawn for an agricultural purpose, within the meaning of this section, if the proceeds thereof have been or are to be advanced by such association to any members thereof for an agricultural purpose, or have been or are to be used by such association in making payments to any members thereof on account of agricultural products delivered by such members to the association, or if such proceeds have been or are to be used by such association to meet expenditures incurred or to be incurred by the association in connection with the grading, processing, packing, preparation for market, or marketing of any agricultural product handled by such association for any of its members: Provided, That the express enumeration in this paragraph of certain classes of paper of cooperative marketing associations as eligible for rediscount shall not be construed as rendering ineligible any other class of paper of such associations which is now eligible for rediscount.
[12 USC 351. As added by act of March 4, 1923 (42 Stat. 1480).]

5. Limitations
The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may, by regulation, limit to a percentage of the assets of a Federal reserve bank the amount of notes, drafts, acceptances, or bills having a maturity in excess of three months, but not exceeding six months, exclusive of days of grace, which may be discounted by such bank, and the amount of notes, drafts, bills, or acceptance having a maturity in excess of six months, but not exceeding nine months, which may be rediscounted by such bank.
[12 USC 352. As added by act of March 4, 1923 (42 Stat. 1480).]

* Previously section 13a, this section was redesignated by act of Dec. 19, 1991 (105 Stat. 2281).

Section 14. Open Market Operations

Purchase and Sale of Cable Transfers, Bank Acceptances and Bills of Exchange
Any Federal reserve bank may, under rules and regulations prescribed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, purchase and sell in the open market, at home or abroad, either from or to domestic or foreign banks, firms, corporations, or individuals, cable transfers and bankers’ acceptances and bills of exchange of the kinds and maturities by this Act made eligible for rediscount, with or without the indorsement of a member bank.
[12 USC 353. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

Dealings in, and Loans on, Gold
Every Federal reserve bank shall have power:
(a) To deal in gold coin and bullion at home or abroad, to make loans thereon, exchange Federal reserve notes for gold, gold coin, or gold certificates, and to contract for loans of gold coin or bullion, giving therefor, when necessary, acceptable security, including the hypothecation of United States bonds or other securities which Federal reserve banks are authorized to hold;

[12 USC 354. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended. See also 12 USC 5116 through 5118.]

Purchase and Sale of Obligations of United States, States, Counties, etc., and of Foreign Governments
(b) 1.To buy and sell, at home or abroad, bonds and notes of the United States, bonds issued under the provisions of subsection (c) of section 4 of the Home Owners’ Loan Act of 1933, as amended, and having maturities from date of purchase of not exceeding six months, and bills, notes, revenue bonds, and warrants with a maturity from date of purchase of not exceeding six months, issued in anticipation of the collection of taxes or in anticipation of the receipt of assured revenues by any State, county, district, political subdivision, or municipality in the continental United States, including irrigation, drainage and reclamation districts, and obligations of, or fully guaranteed as to principal and interest by, a foreign government or agency thereof, such purchases to be made in accordance with rules and regulations prescribed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, any bonds, notes, or other obligations which are direct obligations of the United States or which are fully guaranteed by the United States as to the principal and interest may be bought and sold without regard to maturities but only in the open market.
2.To buy and sell in the open market, under the direction and regulations of the Federal Open Market Committee, any obligation which is a direct obligation of, or fully guaranteed as to principal and interest by, any agency of the United States.

[12 USC 355. As amended by acts of Jan. 31, 1934 (48 Stat. 348); April 27, 1934 (48 Stat. 646); Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 706); March 27, 1942 (56 Stat. 180); April 28, 1947 (61 Stat. 56); June 30, 1950 (64 Stat. 307); June 23, 1952 (66 Stat. 154); June 29, 1954 (68 Stat. 329); June 25, 1956 (70 Stat. 339); June 30, 1958 (72 Stat. 261); July 1, 1960 (74 Stat. 295); Oct. 4, 1961 (75 Stat. 773); June 28, 1962 (76 Stat. 112); June 30, 1964 (78 Stat. 235); June 30, 1966 (80 Stat. 235); Sept. 21, 1966 (80 Stat. 825) (as amended by acts of Sept. 21, 1967 (81 Stat. 226) and Sept. 21, 1968 (82 Stat. 856); May 4, 1968 (82 Stat. 113); July 31, 1970 (84 Stat. 668); July 2, 1971 (85 Stat. 100); Aug. 14, 1973 (87 Stat. 314); Oct. 28, 1974 (88 Stat. 1505); Nov. 12, 1975 (89 Stat. 638); April 19, 1977 (91 Stat. 49); Oct. 12, 1977 (91 Stat. 1131); Nov. 7, 1977 (91 Stat. 1256); June 8, 1979 (93 Stat. 35); and March 31, 1980 (94 Stat. 140). See also 12 USC 2158 and 31 USC 5301. The "continental United States" is defined in paragraph 3 of section 1 of the Federal Reserve Act, so as to mean the "States of the United States and the District of Columbia."]

Purchase and Sale of Bills of Exchange
(c) To purchase from member banks and to sell, with or without its indorsement, bills of exchange arising out of commercial transactions, as hereinbefore defined;
[12 USC 356. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

Rates of Discount
(d) To establish from time to time, subject to review and determination of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, rates of discount to be charged by the Federal reserve bank for each class of paper, which shall be fixed with a view of accommodating commerce and business; but each such bank shall establish such rates every fourteen days, or oftener if deemed necessary by the Board;
[12 USC 357. As amended by acts of April 13, 1920 (41 Stat. 550); March 4, 1923 (42 Stat. 1480); Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 706).]

Foreign Correspondents and Agencies
(e) To establish accounts with other Federal reserve banks for exchange purposes and, with the consent or upon the order and direction of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and under regulations to be prescribed by said board, to open and maintain accounts in foreign countries, appoint correspondents, and establish agencies in such countries wheresoever it may be deemed best for the purpose of purchasing, selling, and collecting bills of exchange, and to buy and sell, with or without its indorsement, through such correspondents or agencies, bills of exchange (or acceptances) arising out of actual commercial transactions which have not more than ninety days to run, exclusive of days of grace, and which bear the signature of two or more responsible parties, and, with the consent of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, to open and maintain banking accounts for such foreign correspondents or agencies, or for foreign banks or bankers, or for foreign states as defined in section 25(b) of this Act. Whenever any such account has been opened or agency or correspondent has been appointed by a Federal reserve bank, with the consent of or under the order and direction of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, any other Federal reserve bank may, with the consent and approval of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, be permitted to carry on or conduct, through the Federal reserve bank opening such account or appointing such agency or correspondent, any transaction authorized by this section under rules and regulations to be prescribed by the board.
[12 USC 358. As amended by acts of Sept. 7, 1916 (39 Stat. 754); June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 235); April 7, 1941 (55 Stat. 131).]

Purchase and Sale of Acceptances of Federal Intermediate Credit Banks
(f) To purchase and sell in the open market, either from or to domestic banks, firms, corporations, or individuals, acceptances of Federal Intermediate Credit Banks and of National Agricultural Credit Corporations, whenever the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall declare that the public interest so requires.
[12 USC 359. As added by act of March 4, 1923 (42 Stat. 1480).]

Relationships and Transactions with Foreign Banks and Bankers
(g) The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall exercise special supervision over all relationships and transactions of any kind entered into by any Federal reserve bank with any foreign bank or banker, or with any group of foreign banks or bankers, and all such relationships and transactions shall be subject to such regulations, conditions, and limitations as the Board may prescribe. No officer or other representative of any Federal reserve bank shall conduct negotiations of any kind with the officers or representatives of any foreign bank or banker without first obtaining the permission of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall have the right, in its discretion, to be represented in any conference or negotiations by such representative or representatives as the Board may designate. A full report of all conferences or negotiations, and all understandings or agreements arrived at or transactions agreed upon, and all other material facts appertaining to such conferences or negotiations, shall be filed with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in writing by a duly authorized officer of each Federal reserve bank which shall have participated in such conferences or negotiations.
[12 USC 348a. As added by act of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 181).]

Section 15. Government Deposits

1. Federal Reserve Banks as Depositaries and Fiscal Agents of United States

The moneys held in the general fund of the Treasury, except the five per centum fund for the redemption of outstanding national-bank notes may, upon the direction of the Secretary of the Treasury, be deposited in Federal reserve banks, which banks, when required by the Secretary of the Treasury, shall act as fiscal agents of the United States; and the revenues of the Government or any part thereof may be deposited in such banks, and disbursements may be made by checks drawn against such deposits.

[12 USC 391. As amended by the act of March 18, 1968 (82 Stat. 50). Also, in effect amended by act of May 29, 1920 (41 Stat. 654).

Reimbursement as fiscal agents is provided by 31 USC 3302(f) as follows:

"(f) When authorized by the Secretary, an official or agent of the Government having custody or possession of public money, or performing other fiscal agent services, may be allowed necessary expenses to collect, keep, transfer, and pay out public money and to perform those services. However, money appropriated for those expenses may not be used to employ or pay officers and employees of the Government."]

2. Nonmember Banks as Depositaries of United States

No public funds of the Philippine Islands, or of the postal savings, or any Government funds, shall be deposited in the continental United States in any bank not belonging to the system established by this Act: Provided, however, That nothing in this Act shall be construed to deny the right of the Secretary of the Treasury to use member banks as depositaries.

[12 USC 392. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not specifically amended, but amended in effect by the following statutes permitting the deposit of government funds in nonmember banks: Under section 10 of the act of June 11, 1942, all insured banks designated for the purpose by the Secretary of the Treasury may be depositaries of public moneys of the United States under the Liberty Bond Acts, the proceeds of sales of Liberty bonds may be deposited in nonmember banks; and under the Internal Revenue Code, the Secretary of the Treasury may authorize banks or trust companies to receive taxes. For designation of state member banks as depositaries of public money, see section 9 of the Federal Reserve Act; for designation of national banks as depositaries of public money, see section 5153 of the Revised Statutes. "Continental United States" means "the States of the United States and the District of Columbia." (Federal Reserve Act, section 1, third paragraph.) Presidential Proclamation No. 2695 of July 4, 1946 (60 Stat. 1352; 12 USC 1394 note) recognizes the independence of the Philippine Islands. Therefore the words "of the Philippine Islands or" have been omitted from the U.S. Code.]

3. Depositaries and Fiscal Agents of Institutions of the Farm Credit System

The Federal Reserve banks are authorized to act as depositaries for and fiscal agents of any Federal land bank, Federal intermediate credit bank, bank for cooperatives, or other institutions of the Farm Credit System.

[12 USC 393. As added by act of March 4, 1923 (42 Stat. 1480); and amended by act of Dec. 10, 1971 (85 Stat. 625).]

Section 16. Note Issues

1. Issuance of Federal Reserve Notes; Nature of Obligation; Where Redeemable

Federal reserve notes, to be issued at the discretion of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System for the purpose of making advances to Federal reserve banks through the Federal reserve agents as hereinafter set forth and for no other purpose, are hereby authorized. The said notes shall be obligations of the United States and shall be receivable by all national and member banks and Federal reserve banks and for all taxes, customs, and other public dues. They shall be redeemed in lawful money on demand at the Treasury Department of the United States, in the city of Washington, District of Columbia, or at any Federal Reserve bank.

[12 USC 411. As amended by act of Jan. 30, 1934 (48 Stat. 337). For redemption of Federal reserve notes whose bank of issue cannot be identified, see act of June 13, 1933.]

2. Application for Notes by Federal Reserve Banks

Any Federal Reserve bank may make application to the local Federal Reserve agent for such amount of the Federal Reserve notes hereinbefore provided for as it may require. Such application shall be accompanied with a tender to the local Federal Reserve agent of collateral in amount equal to the sum of the Federal Reserve notes thus applied for and issued pursuant to such application. The collateral security thus offered shall be notes, drafts, bills of exchange, or acceptances acquired under section 10A, 10B, 13, or 13A of this Act, or bills of exchange endorsed by a member bank of any Federal Reserve district and purchased under the provisions of section 14 of this Act, or bankers’ acceptances purchased under the provisions of said section 14, or gold certificates, or Special Drawing Right certificates, or any obligations which are direct obligations of, or are fully guaranteed as to principal and interest by, the United States or any agency thereof, or assets that Federal Reserve banks may purchase or hold under section 14 of this Act or any other asset of a Federal reserve bank. In no event shall such collateral security be less than the amount of Federal Reserve notes applied for. The Federal Reserve agent shall each day notify the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System of all issues and withdrawals of Federal Reserve notes to and by the Federal Reserve bank to which he is accredited. The said Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may at any time call upon a Federal Reserve bank for additional security to protect the Federal Reserve notes issued to it. Collateral shall not be required for Federal Reserve notes which are held in the vaults of, or are otherwise held by or on behalf of, Federal Reserve banks.

[12 USC 412. As amended by the acts of Sept. 7, 1916 (39 Stat. 754); June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 236); Feb. 27, 1932 (47 Stat. 57); Feb. 3, 1933 (47 Stat. 794); Jan. 30, 1934 (48 Stat. 338); March 6, 1934 (48 Stat. 991); June 30, 1941 (55 Stat. 395); May 25, 1943 (57 Stat. 85); June 12, 1945 (59 Stat. 237); June 19, 1968 (82 Stat. 189); Nov. 10, 1978 (92 Stat. 3672); March 31, 1980 (94 Stat. 140); Dec. 6, 1999 (113 Stat. 1638); and Oct. 28, 2003 (117 Stat. 1193).]

3. Distinctive Letter on Notes; Destruction of Unfit Notes

Federal Reserve notes shall bear upon their faces a distinctive letter and serial number which shall be assigned by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System to each Federal Reserve bank. Federal Reserve notes unfit for circulation shall be canceled, destroyed, and accounted for under procedures prescribed and at locations designated by the Secretary of the Treasury. Upon destruction of such notes, credit with respect thereto shall be apportioned among the twelve Federal Reserve banks as determined by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

[12 USC 413. As amended by acts of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 236); Jan. 30, 1934 (48 Stat. 338); June 12, 1945 (59 Stat. 237); July 19, 1954 (68 Stat. 495); March 3, 1965 (79 Stat. 5); May 20, 1966 (80 Stat. 161); and March 18, 1968 (82 Stat. 50).]

4. Granting Right to Issue Notes

The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall have the right, acting through the Federal Reserve agent, to grant in whole or in part, or to reject entirely the application of any Federal Reserve bank for Federal Reserve notes; but to the extent that such application may be granted the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall, through its local Federal Reserve agent, supply Federal Reserve notes to the banks so applying, and such bank shall be charged with the amount of the notes issued to it and shall pay such rate of interest as may be established by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System on only that amount of such notes which equals the total amount of its outstanding Federal Reserve notes less the amount of gold certificates held by the Federal Reserve agent as collateral security. Federal Reserve notes issued to any such bank shall, upon delivery, together with such notes of such Federal Reserve bank as may be issued under section 18 of this Act upon security of United States 2 per centum Government bonds, become a first and paramount lien on all the assets of such bank.

[12 USC 414. As amended by acts of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 237); Jan. 30, 1934 (48 Stat. 338); June 12, 1945 (59 Stat. 237); and March 18, 1968 (82 Stat. 50).]

5. Deposit to Reduce Liability for Outstanding Notes

Any Federal Reserve bank may at any time reduce its liability for outstanding Federal Reserve notes by depositing with the Federal Reserve agent its Federal Reserve notes, gold certificates, Special Drawing Right certificates, or lawful money of the United States. Federal Reserve notes so deposited shall not be reissued, except upon compliance with the conditions of an original issue. The liability of a Federal Reserve bank with respect to its outstanding Federal Reserve notes shall be reduced by any amount paid by such bank to the Secretary of the Treasury under section 4 of the Old Series Currency Adjustment Act.

[12 USC 415. As reenacted by act of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 237); and as amended by acts of Jan. 30, 1934 (48 Stat. 339); June 30, 1961 (75 Stat. 147); March 18, 1968 (82 Stat. 50); and June 19, 1968 (82 Stat. 189). The act of June 30, 1961, is the Old Series Currency Adjustment Act.]

6. Substitution of Collateral; Retirement of Federal Reserve Notes

Any Federal reserve bank may at its discretion withdraw collateral deposited with the local Federal reserve agent for the protection of its Federal reserve notes issued to it and shall at the same time substitute therefor other collateral of equal amount with the approval of the Federal reserve agent under regulations to be prescribed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Any Federal reserve bank may retire any of its Federal reserve notes by depositing them with the Federal reserve agent or with the Treasurer of the United States, and such Federal reserve bank shall thereupon be entitled to receive back the collateral deposited with the Federal reserve agent for the security of such notes. Any Federal Reserve bank shall further be entitled to receive back the collateral deposited with the Federal Reserve agent for the security of any notes with respect to which such bank has made payment to the Secretary of the Treasury under section 4 of the Old Series Currency Adjustment Act. Federal reserve notes so deposited shall not be reissued except upon compliance with the conditions of an original issue.

[12 USC 416. As amended by acts of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 237); June 30, 1961 (75 Stat. 147); and March 18, 1968 (82 Stat. 50). The act of June 30, 1961 is the Old Series Currency Adjustment Act.]

7. Custody of Reserve Notes, Gold Certificates, and Lawful Money

All Federal Reserve notes and all gold certificates, Special Drawing Right certificates, and lawful money issued to or deposited with any Federal Reserve agent under the provisions of the Federal Reserve Act shall hereafter be held for such agent, under such rules and regulations as the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may prescribe, in the joint custody of himself and the Federal Reserve bank to which he is accredited. Such agent and such Federal Reserve bank shall be jointly liable for the safekeeping of such Federal Reserve notes, gold certificates, Special Drawing Right certificates, and lawful money. Nothing herein contained, however, shall be construed to prohibit a Federal Reserve agent from depositing gold certificates and Special Drawing Right certificates with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, to be held by such Board subject to his order, or with the Treasurer of the United States for the purposes authorized by law.

[12 USC 417. As added by act of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 238); and amended by acts of Jan. 30, 1934 (48 Stat. 339) and June 19, 1968 (82 Stat. 189).]

8. Engraving of Plates; Denominations and Form of Notes

In order to furnish suitable notes for circulation as Federal reserve notes, the Secretary of the Treasury shall cause plates and dies to be engraved in the best manner to guard against counterfeits and fraudulent alterations, and shall have printed therefrom and numbered such quantities of such notes of the denominations of $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, $50, $100, $500, $1,000 $5,000, $10,000 as may be required to supply the Federal reserve banks. Such notes shall be in form and tenor as directed by the Secretary of the Treasury under the provisions of this Act and shall bear the distinctive numbers of the several Federal reserve banks through which they are issued.

[12 USC 418. As amended by acts of Sept. 26, 1918 (40 Stat. 970); June 4, 1963 (77 Stat. 54); and Sept. 23, 1994 (108 Stat. 2293).]

9. Custody of Unissued Notes

When such notes have been prepared, the notes shall be delivered to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System subject to the order of the Secretary of the Treasury for the delivery of such notes in accordance with this Act.

[12 USC 419. As amended by acts of May 29, 1920 (41 Stat. 654) and Sept. 23, 1994 (108 Stat. 2293).]

10. Custody of Plates and Dies; Expenses of Issue and Retirement of Notes

The plates and dies to be procured by the Secretary of the Treasury for the printing of such circulating notes shall remain under his control and direction, and the expenses necessarily incurred in executing the laws relating to the procuring of such notes, and all other expenses incidental to their issue and retirement, shall be paid by the Federal reserve banks, and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall include in its estimate of expenses levied against the Federal reserve banks a sufficient amount to cover the expenses herein provided for.

[12 USC 420. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

11. Examinations of Plates, Dies, Etc.

The Secretary of the Treasury may examine the plates, dies, bed pieces, and other material used in the printing of Federal Reserve notes and issue regulations relating to such examinations.

[12 USC 421. As amended by act of Sept. 23, 1994 (108 Stat. 2293).]

12. Appropriation for Engraving, Etc.

Any appropriation heretofore made out of the general funds of the Treasury for engraving plates and dies, the purchase of distinctive paper, or to cover any other expense in connection with the printing of national-bank notes or notes provided for by the Act of May thirtieth, nineteen hundred and eight, and any distinctive paper that may be on hand at the time of the passage of this Act may be used in the discretion of the Secretary for the purposes of this Act, and should the appropriations heretofore made be insufficient to meet the requirements of this Act in addition to circulating notes provided for by existing law, the Secretary is hereby authorized to use so much of any funds in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated for the purpose of furnishing the notes aforesaid: Provided, however, That nothing in this section contained shall be construed as exempting national banks or Federal reserve banks from their liability to reimburse the United States for any expenses incurred in printing and issuing circulating notes.

[Omitted from U.S. Code. Part of original Federal Reserve Act. This paragraph was in effect amended by subsection (a) of section 1 of the Permanent Appropriation Repeal Act of 1934, approved June 26, 1934 (48 Stat. 1224; 31 USC, 725), which provides: "That effective July 1, 1935, such portions of any acts as provide permanent or continuing appropriations from the general fund of the Treasury to be disbursed under the appropriation accounts appearing on the books of the Government, and listed in subsection (b) of this section, are hereby repealed, and any unobligated balances under such accounts as of June 30, 1935, shall be covered into the surplus fund of the Treasury." Among the appropriation accounts listed in subsection (b) is that for the preparation and issue of Federal reserve notes.]

13. Checks and Drafts to Be Received on Deposit at Par

Every Federal reserve bank shall receive on deposit at par from depository institutions or from Federal reserve banks checks and other items, including negotiable orders of withdrawal and share drafts and drafts drawn upon any of its depositors, and when remitted by a Federal reserve bank, checks and other items, including negotiable orders of withdrawal and share drafts and drafts drawn by any depositor in any other Federal reserve bank or depository institution upon funds to the credit of said depositor in said reserve bank or depository institution. Nothing herein contained shall be construed as prohibiting a depository institution from charging its actual expense incurred in collecting and remitting funds, or for exchange sold to its patrons. The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall, by rule, fix the charges to be collected by the depository institutions from its patrons whose checks and other items, including negotiable orders of withdrawal and share drafts are cleared through the Federal reserve bank and the charge which may be imposed for the service of clearing or collection rendered by the Federal reserve bank.

[12 USC 360. As amended by act of March 31, 1980 (94 Stat. 140).]

14. Transfer of Funds Among Federal Reserve Banks

The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall make and promulgate from time to time regulations governing the transfer of funds and charges therefor among Federal reserve banks and their branches, and may at its discretion exercise the functions of a clearing house for such Federal reserve banks, or may designate a Federal reserve bank to exercise such functions, and may also require each such bank to exercise the functions of a clearing house for depository institutions.

[12 USC 248-1. As amended by acts of Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 704) and March 31, 1980 (94 Stat. 140). Reclassified (previously 12 USC 248(o).]

15. Gold Deposits and Gold Certificate Deposits

The Secretary of the Treasury is hereby authorized and directed to receive deposits of gold or of gold certificates or of Special Drawing Right certificates with the Treasurer or any Assistant Treasurer of the United States when tendered by any Federal Reserve bank or Federal Reserve agent for credit to its or his account with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. The Secretary shall prescribe by regulation the form of receipt to be issued by the Treasurer or Assistant Treasurer to the Federal Reserve bank or Federal Reserve agent making the deposit, and a duplicate of such receipt shall be delivered to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System by the Treasurer at Washington upon proper advices from any Assistant Treasurer that such deposit has been made. Deposits so made shall be held subject to the orders of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and deposits of gold or gold certificates shall be payable in gold certificates, and deposits of Special Drawing Right certificates shall be payable in Special Drawing Right certificates, on the order of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System to any Federal Reserve bank or Federal Reserve agent at the Treasury or at the subtreasury of the United States nearest the place of business of such Federal Reserve bank or such Federal Reserve agent. The order used by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in making such payments shall be signed by the chairman or vice chairman, or such other officers or members as the Board may by regulation prescribe. The form of such order shall be approved by the Secretary of the Treasury.

[12 USC 467. As added by act of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 238); and amended by acts of Jan. 30, 1934 (48 Stat. 339) and June 19, 1968 (82 Stat. 189). Prior to enactment of the Banking Act of 1935, approved Aug. 23, 1935, the chairman and vice chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System were known as the governor and vice governor of the Federal Reserve Board, respectively. See note to section 1.]

16. Expenses

The expenses necessarily incurred in carrying out these provisions, including the cost of the certificates or receipts issued for deposits received, and all expenses incident to the handling of such deposits shall be paid by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and included in its assessments against the several Federal reserve banks.

[12 USC 467. As added by act of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 238).]

17. Preservation of Provisions of Act of March 14, 1900

Nothing in this section shall be construed as amending section six of the Act of March fourteenth, nineteen hundred, as amended by the Acts of March fourth, nineteen hundred and seven, March second, nineteen hundred and eleven, and June twelfth, nineteen hundred and sixteen, nor shall the provisions of this section be construed to apply to the deposits made or to the receipts or certificates issued under those Acts.

[12 USC 467. As added by act of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 239).]

Section 17. Deposit of Bonds by National Banks

1. Repeal of Provisions Requiring National Banks to Deposit Bonds with United States Treasurer
So much of the provisions of section fifty-one hundred and fifty-nine of the Revised Statutes of the United States, and section four of the Act of June twentieth, eighteen hundred and seventy-four, and section eight of the Act of July twelfth, eighteen hundred and eighty-two, and of any other provisions of existing statutes as require that before any national banking association shall be authorized to commence banking business it shall transfer and deliver to the Treasurer of the United States a stated amount of United States registered bonds, and so much of those provisions or of any other provisions of existing statutes as require any national banking association now or hereafter organized to maintain a minimum deposit of such bonds with the Treasurer is hereby repealed.
[12 USC 101a note. As amended by act of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 239).]

Section 18. Refunding Bonds

1. Application to Sell Bonds Securing Circulation
After two years from the passage of this Act, and at any time during a period of twenty years thereafter, any member bank desiring to retire the whole or any part of its circulating notes, may file with the Treasurer of the United States an application to sell for its account, at par and accrued interest, United States bonds securing circulation to be retired.
[12 USC 441. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended. On March 11, 1935, the Secretary of the Treasury called for redemption on July 1, 1935, and Aug. 1, 1935, respectively, the only bonds of the United States bearing the circulating privilege after July 22, 1935, namely the 2 percent Consols of 1930 and the 2 percent Panama Canal Loan bonds of 1916-36 and 1918-38.]

2. Purchase of Bonds by Federal Reserve Banks
The Treasurer shall, at the end of each quarterly period, furnish the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System with a list of such applications, and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may, in its discretion, require the Federal reserve banks to purchase such bonds from the banks whose applications have been filed with the Treasurer at least ten days before the end of any quarterly period at which the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may direct the purchase to be made: Provided, That Federal reserve banks shall not be permitted to purchase an amount to exceed $25,000,000 of such bonds in any one year, and which amount shall include bonds acquired under section four of this Act by the Federal reserve bank.
[12 USC 442. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

3. Allotment of Bonds to Be Purchased
Provided further, That the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall allot to each Federal reserve bank such proportion of such bonds as the capital and surplus of such bank shall bear to the aggregate capital and surplus of all the Federal reserve banks.
[12 USC 413. As amended by acts of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 236); Jan. 30, 1934 (48 Stat. 338); June 12, 1945 (59 Stat. 237); July 19, 1954 (68 Stat. 495); March 3, 1965 (79 Stat. 5); May 20, 1966 (80 Stat. 161); and March 18, 1968 (82 Stat. 50).]

4. Transfer and Payment
Upon notice from the Treasurer of the amount of bonds so sold for its account, each member bank shall duly assign and transfer, in writing, such bonds to the Federal reserve bank purchasing the same, and such Federal reserve bank shall, thereupon, deposit lawful money with the Treasurer of the United States for the purchase price of such bonds, and the Treasurer shall pay to the member bank selling such bonds any balance due after deducting a sufficient sum to redeem its outstanding notes secured by such bonds, which notes shall be canceled and permanently retired when redeemed.
[12 USC 443. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

5. Federal Reserve Bank Notes
The Federal reserve banks purchasing such bonds shall be permitted to take out an amount of circulating notes equal to the par value of such bonds.
[12 USC 444. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

6. Collateral for Notes; Form and Tenor; Redemption
Upon the deposit with the Treasurer of the United States, (a) of any direct obligations of the United States or (b) of any notes, drafts, bills of exchange, or bankers’ acceptances acquired under the provisions of this Act, any Federal reserve bank making such deposit in the manner prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury shall be entitled to receive from the Secretary of the Treasury circulating notes in blank, duly registered and countersigned. When such circulating notes are issued against the security of obligations of the United States, the amount of such circulating notes shall be equal to the face value of the direct obligations of the United States so deposited as security; and, when issued against the security of notes, drafts, bills of exchange and bankers’ acceptances acquired under the provisions of this Act, the amount thereof shall be equal to not more than 90 per cent of the estimated value of such notes, drafts, bills of exchange and bankers’ acceptances so deposited as security. Such notes shall be the obligations of the Federal reserve bank procuring the same, shall be in form prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, shall be receivable at par in all parts of the United States for the same purposes as are national bank notes, and shall be redeemable in lawful money of the United States on presentation at the United States Treasury or at the bank of issue. The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized and empowered to prescribe regulations governing the issuance, redemption, replacement, retirement and destruction of such circulating notes and the release and substitution of security therefor. Such circulating notes shall be subject to the same tax as is provided by law for the circulating notes of national banks secured by 2 per cent bonds of the United States. No such circulating notes shall be issued under this paragraph after the President has declared by proclamation that the emergency recognized by the President by proclamation of March 6, 1933, has terminated, unless such circulating notes are secured by deposits of bonds of the United States bearing the circulation privilege. When required to do so by the Secretary of the Treasury, each Federal reserve agent shall act as agent of the Treasurer of the United States or of the Secretary of the Treasury, or both, for the performance of any of the functions which the Treasurer or the Secretary of the Treasury may be called upon to perform in carrying out the provisions of this paragraph. Appropriations available for distinctive paper and printing United States currency or national bank currency are hereby made available for the production of the circulating notes of Federal reserve banks herein provided; but the United States shall be reimbursed by the Federal reserve bank to which such notes are issued for all expenses necessarily incurred in connection with the procuring of such notes and all other expenses incidental to their issue, redemption, replacement, retirement and destruction.
[Formerly 12 USC 445. As amended by acts of March 9, 1933 (48 Stat. 6); June 12, 1945 (59 Stat. 238); and Sept. 23, 1994 (108 Stat. 2293). This paragraph was in effect repealed by section 3 of the act of June 12, 1945, which provided:

"All power and authority with respect to the issuance of circulating notes, known as Federal Reserve bank notes, pursuant to the sixth paragraph of section 18 of the Federal Reserve Act, as amended by section 401 of the Act approved March 9, 1933 (48 Stat. 1, 6), shall cease and terminate on the date of enactment of this Act."

As to redemption of Federal Reserve bank notes when the bank of issue cannot be identified, see section 2 of the act of June 13, 1933 (12 USC 122a).]

7. Exchange of 2 Percent Gold Bonds for One-Year Gold Notes and 30-Year 3 Percent Gold Bonds
Upon application of any Federal reserve bank, approved by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the Secretary of the Treasury may issue, in exchange for United States two per centum gold bonds bearing the circulation privilege, but against which no circulation is outstanding, one-year gold notes of the United States without the circulation privilege, to an amount not to exceed one-half of the two per centum bonds so tendered for exchange, and thirty-year three per centum gold bonds without the circulation privilege for the remainder of the two per centum bonds sotendered: Provided, That at the time of such exchange the Federal reserve bank obtaining such one-year gold notes shall enter into an obligation with the Secretary of the Treasury binding itself to purchase from the United States for gold at the maturity of such one-year notes, an amount equal to those delivered in exchange for such bonds, if so requested by the Secretary, and at each maturity of one-year notes so purchased by such Federal reserve bank, to purchase from the United States such an amount of one-year notes as the Secretary may tender to such bank, not to exceed the amount issued to such bank in the first instance, in exchange for the two per centum United States gold bonds; said obligation to purchase at maturity such notes shall continue in force for a period not to exceed thirty years.
[12 USC 446. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

8. Issue of One-Year Treasury Notes and 30-Year 3 Percent Gold Bonds
For the purpose of making the exchange herein provided for, the Secretary of the Treasury is authorized to issue at par Treasury notes in coupon or registered form as he may prescribe in denominations of one hundred dollars, or any multiple thereof, bearing interest at the rate of three per centum per annum, payable quarterly, such Treasury notes to be payable not more than one year from the date of their issue in gold coin of the present standard value, and to be exempt as to principal and interest from the payment of all taxes and duties of the United States except as provided by this Act, as well as from taxes in any form by or under State, municipal, or local authorities. And for the same purpose, the Secretary is authorized and empowered to issue United States gold bonds at par, bearing three per centum interest payable thirty years from date of issue, such bonds to be of the same general tenor and effect and to be issued under the same general terms and conditions as the United States three per centum bonds without the circulation privilege now issued and outstanding.
[12 USC 447. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

9. Exchange of 3 Percent Bonds for One-Year Notes
Upon application of any Federal reserve bank, approved by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the Secretary may issue at par such three per centum bonds in exchange for the one-year gold notes therein provided for.
[12 USC 448. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

Section 19. Bank Reserves

Definition of Terms

(a) The Board is authorized for the purposes of this section to define the terms used in this section, to determine what shall be deemed a payment of interest, to determine what types of obligations, whether issued directly by a member bank or indirectly by an affiliate of a member bank or by other means, and, regardless of the use of the proceeds, shall be deemed a deposit, and to prescribe such regulations as it may deem necessary to effectuate the purposes of this section and to prevent evasions thereof.

[12 USC 461(a). As amended by acts of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 239) (which completely revised this section); Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 714); Sept. 21, 1966 (80 Stat. 823) (as amended by acts of Sept. 21, 1967 (81 Stat. 226) and Sept. 21, 1968 (82 Stat. 856)); Dec. 23, 1969 (83 Stat. 374); Oct. 29, 1974 (88 Stat. 1557); and March 31, 1980 (94 Stat. 133, 138). The amendment inserting the words "and, regardless of the use of the proceeds," made by the act of Oct. 29, 1974, "shall not apply to any bank holding company which has filed prior to the date of enactment of this Act an irrevocable declaration with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System to divest itself of all of its banks under section 4 of the Bank Holding Company Act, or to any debt obligation which is an exempted security under section 3(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933" (12 USC 461 note).]

Reserve Requirements

(b)
1.Definitions. The following definitions and rules apply to this subsection, subsection (c), section 11A, the first paragraph of section 13, and the second, thirteenth, and fourteenth paragraphs of section 16: A. The term “depository institution” means– i. any insured bank as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act or any bank which is eligible to make application to become an insured bank under section 5 of such Act;
ii. any mutual savings bank as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act or any bank which is eligible to make application to become an insured bank under section 5 of such Act;
iii. any savings bank as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act or any bank which is eligible to make application to become an insured bank under section 5 of such Act;
iv. any insured credit union as defined in section 101 of the Federal Credit Union Act or any credit union which is eligible to make application to become an insured credit union pursuant to section 201 of such Act;
v. any member as defined in section 2 of the Federal Home Loan Bank Act;
vi. any savings association (as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) which is an insured depository institution (as defined in such Act) or is eligible to apply to become an insured depository institution under the Federal Deposit Insurance Act; and
vii. for the purpose of section 13 and the fourteenth paragraph of section 16, any association or entity which is wholly owned by or which consists only of institutions referred to in clauses (i) through (vi).

B. The term “bank” means any insured or non-insured bank, as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act, other than a mutual savings bank or a savings bank as defined in such section.
C. The term “transaction account” means a deposit or account on which the depositor or account holder is permitted to make withdrawals by negotiable or transferable instrument, payment orders of withdrawal, telephone transfers, or other similar items for the purpose of making payments or transfers to third persons or others. Such term includes demand deposits, negotiable order of withdrawal accounts, savings deposits subject to automatic transfers, and share draft accounts.
D. The term “nonpersonal time deposits” means a transferable time deposit or account or a time deposit or account representing funds deposited to the credit of, or in which any beneficial interest is held by, a depositor who is not a natural person.
E. The term “reservable liabilities” means transaction accounts, nonpersonal time deposits, and all net balances, loans, assets, and obligations which are, or may be, subject to reserve requirements under paragraph (5).
F. In order to prevent evasions of the reserve requirements imposed by this subsection, after consultation with the Board of Directors of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Comptroller of the Currency, and the National Credit Union Administration Board, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System is authorized to determine, by regulation or order, that an account or deposit is a transaction account if such account or deposit may be used to provide funds directly or indirectly for the purpose of making payments or transfers to third persons or others.

2.Reserve requirements. A. Each depository institution shall maintain reserves against its transaction accounts as the Board may prescribe by regulation solely for the purpose of implementing monetary policy– i. in the ratio of not greater than 3 percent (and which may be zero) for that portion of its total transaction accounts of $25,000,000 or less, subject to subparagraph (C); and
ii. in the ratio of 12 per centum, or in such other ratio as the Board may prescribe not greater than 14 per centum (and which may be zero), for that portion of its total transaction accounts in excess of $25,000,000, subject to subparagraph (C).

B. Each depository institution shall maintain reserves against its nonpersonal time deposits in the ratio of 3 per centum, or in such other ratio not greater than 9 per centum and not less than zero per centum as the Board may prescribe by regulation solely for the purpose of implementing monetary policy.
C. Beginning in 1981, not later than December 31 of each year the Board shall issue a regulation increasing for the next succeeding calendar year the dollar amount which is contained in subparagraph (A) or which was last determined pursuant to this subparagraph for the purpose of such subparagraph, by an amount obtained by multiplying such dollar amount by 80 per centum of the percentage increase in the total transaction accounts of all depository institutions. The increase in such transaction accounts shall be determined by subtracting the amount of such accounts on June 30 of the preceding calendar year from the amount of such accounts on June 30 of the calendar year involved. In the case of any such 12-month period in which there has been a decrease in the total transaction accounts of all depository institutions, the Board shall issue such a regulation decreasing for the next succeeding calendar year such dollar amount by an amount obtained by multiplying such dollar amount by 80 per centum of the percentage decrease in the total transaction accounts of all depository institutions. The decrease in such transaction accounts shall be determined by subtracting the amount of such accounts on June 30 of the calendar year involved from the amount of such accounts on June 30 of the previous calendar year.
D. Any reserve requirement imposed under this subsection shall be uniformly applied to all transaction accounts at all depository institutions. Reserve requirements imposed under this subsection shall be uniformly applied to nonpersonal time deposits at all depository institutions, except that such requirements may vary by the maturity of such deposits.

3.Waiver of ratio limits in extraordinary circumstances. Upon a finding by at least 5 members of the Board that extraordinary circumstances require such action, the Board, after consultation with the appropriate committees of the Congress, may impose, with respect to any liability of depository institutions, reserve requirements outside the limitations as to ratios and as to types of liabilities otherwise prescribed by paragraph (2) for a period not exceeding 180 days, and for further periods not exceeding 180 days each by affirmative action by at least 5 members of the Board in each instance. The Board shall promptly transmit to the Congress a report of any exercise of its authority under this paragraph and the reasons for such exercise of authority.

4.Supplemental reserves. A. The Board may, upon the affirmative vote of not less than 5 members, impose a supplemental reserve requirement on every depository institution of not more than 4 per centum of its total transaction accounts. Such supplemental reserve requirement may be imposed only if– i. the sole purpose of such requirement is to increase the amount of reserves maintained to a level essential for the conduct of monetary policy;
ii. such requirement is not imposed for the purpose of reducing the cost burdens resulting from the imposition of the reserve requirements pursuant to paragraph (2);
iii. such requirement is not imposed for the purpose of increasing the amount of balances needed for clearing purposes; and
iv. on the date on which the supplemental reserve requirement is imposed, except as provided in paragraph (11), the total amount of reserves required pursuant to paragraph (2) is not less than the amount of reserves that would be required if the initial ratios specified in paragraph (2) were in effect.

B. The Board may require the supplemental reserve authorized under subparagraph (A) only after consultation with the Board of Directors of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Comptroller of the Currency, and the National Credit Union Administration Board. The Board shall promptly transmit to the Congress a report with respect to any exercise of its authority to require supplemental reserves under subparagraph (A) and such report shall state the basis for the determination to exercise such authority.
C. If a supplemental reserve under subparagraph (A) has been required of depository institutions for a period of one year or more, the Board shall review and determine the need for continued maintenance of supplemental reserves and shall transmit annual reports to the Congress regarding the need, if any, for continuing the supplemental reserve.
D. Any supplemental reserve imposed under subparagraph (A) shall terminate at the close of the first 90-day period after such requirement is imposed during which the average amount of reserves required under paragraph (2) are less than the amount of reserves which would be required during such period if the initial ratios specified in paragraph (2) were in effect.

5.Reserves related to foreign obligations or assets. Foreign branches, subsidiaries, and international banking facilities of nonmember depository institutions shall maintain reserves to the same extent required by the Board of foreign branches, subsidiaries, and international banking facilities of member banks. In addition to any reserves otherwise required to be maintained pursuant to this subsection, any depository institution shall maintain reserves in such ratios as the Board may prescribe against– A. net balances owed by domestic offices of such depository institution in the United States to its directly related foreign offices and to foreign offices of non-related depository institutions;
B. loans to United States residents made by overseas offices of such depository institution if such depository institution has one or more offices in the United States; and
C. assets (including participations) held by foreign offices of a depository institution in the United States which were acquired from its domestic offices.

6.Exemption for certain deposits. The requirements imposed under paragraph (2) shall not apply to deposits payable only outside the States of the United States and the District of Columbia, except that nothing in this subsection limits the authority of the Board to impose conditions and requirements on member banks under section 25 of this Act or the authority of the Board under section 7 of the International Banking Act of 1978 (12 U.S.C. 3105).

7.Discount and borrowing. Any depository institution in which transaction accounts or nonpersonal time deposits are held shall be entitled to the same discount and borrowing privileges as member banks. In the administration of discount and borrowing privileges, the Board and the Federal Reserve banks shall take into consideration the special needs of savings and other depository institutions for access to discount and borrowing facilities consistent with their long-term asset portfolios and the sensitivity of such institutions to trends in the national money markets.

8.Transitional adjustments. A. Any depository institution required to maintain reserves under this subsection which was engaged in business on July 1, 1979, but was not a member of the Federal Reserve System on or after that date, shall maintain reserves against its deposits during the first twelve-month period following the effective date of this paragraph in amounts equal to one-eighth of those otherwise required by this subsection, during the second such twelve-month period in amounts equal to one-fourth of those otherwise required, during the third such twelve-month period in amounts equal to three-eighths of those otherwise required, during the fourth twelve-month period in amounts equal to one-half of those otherwise required, and during the fifth twelve-month period in amounts equal to five-eighths of those otherwise required, during the sixth twelve-month period in amounts equal to three-fourths of those otherwise required, and during the seventh twelve-month period in amounts equal to seven-eighths of those otherwise required. This subparagraph does not apply to any category of deposits or accounts which are first authorized pursuant to Federal law in any State after April 1, 1980.
B. With respect to any bank which was a member of the Federal Reserve System during the entire period beginning on July 1, 1979, and ending on the effective date of the Monetary Control Act of 1980, the amount of required reserves imposed pursuant to this subsection on and after the effective date of such Act that exceeds the amount of reserves which would have been required of such bank if the reserve ratios in effect during the reserve computation period immediately preceding such effective date were applied may, at the discretion of the Board and in accordance with such rules and regulations as it may adopt, be reduced by 75 per centum during the first year which begins after such effective date, 50 per centum during the second year, and 25 per centum during the third year.
C.i. With respect to any bank which is a member of the Federal Reserve System on the effective date of the Monetary Control Act of 1980, the amount of reserves which would have been required of such bank if the reserve ratios in effect during the reserve computation period immediately preceding such effective date were applied that exceeds the amount of required reserves imposed pursuant to this subsection shall, in accordance with such rules and regulations as the Board may adopt, be reduced by 25 per centum during the first year which begins after such effective date, 50 per centum during the second year, and 75 per centum during the third year.
ii. If a bank becomes a member bank during the four-year period beginning on the effective date of the Monetary Control Act of 1980, and if the amount of reserves which would have been required of such bank, determined as if the reserve ratios in effect during the reserve computation period immediately preceding such effective date were applied, and as if such bank had been a member during such period, exceeds the amount of reserves required pursuant to this subsection, the amount of reserves required to be maintained by such bank beginning on the date on which such bank becomes a member of the Federal Reserve System shall be the amount of reserves which would have been required of such bank if it had been a member on the day before such effective date, except that the amount of such excess shall, in accordance with such rules and regulations as the Board may adopt, be reduced by 25 per centum during the first year which begins after such effective date, 50 per centum during the second year, and 75 per centum during the third year.

D.i. Any bank which was a member bank on July 1, 1979, and which withdraws from membership in the Federal Reserve System during the period beginning on July 1, 1979, and ending on March 31, 1980, shall maintain reserves during the first twelve-month period beginning on the date of enactment of this clause in amounts equal to one-half of those otherwise required by this subsection, during the second such twelve-month period in amounts equal to two-thirds of those otherwise required, and during the third such twelve-month period in amounts equal to five-sixths of those otherwise required.
ii. Any bank which withdraws from membership in the Federal Reserve System on or after the date of enactment of the Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980 shall maintain reserves in the same amount as member banks are required to maintain under this subsection, pursuant to subparagraphs (B) and (C)(i).

E. This subparagraph applies to any depository institution that, on August 1, 1978, (i) was engaged in business as a depository institution in a State outside the continental limits of the United States, and (ii) was not a member of the Federal Reserve System at any time on or after such date. Such a depository institution shall not be required to maintain reserves against its deposits held or maintained at its offices located in a State outside the continental limits of the United States until the first day of the sixth calendar year which begins after the effective date of the Monetary Control Act of 1980. Such a depository institution shall maintain reserves against its deposits during the sixth calendar year which begins after such effective date in an amount equal to one-eighth of that otherwise required by paragraph (2), during the seventh such year in an amount equal to one-fourth of that otherwise required, during the eighth such year in an amount equal to three-eighths of that otherwise required, during the ninth such year in an amount equal to one-half of that otherwise required, during the tenth such year in an amount equal to five-eighths of that otherwise required, during the eleventh such year in an amount equal to three-fourths of that otherwise required, and during the twelfth such year in an amount equal to seven-eighths of that otherwise required.

9.Exemption. This subsection shall not apply with respect to any financial institution which– A. is organized solely to do business with other financial institutions;
B. is owned primarily by the financial institutions with which it does business; and
C. does not do business with the general public.

10.Waivers. In individual cases, where a Federal supervisory authority waives a liquidity requirement, or waives the penalty for failing to satisfy a liquidity requirement, the Board shall waive the reserve requirement, or waive the penalty for failing to satisfy a reserve requirement, imposed pursuant to this subsection for the depository institution involved when requested by the Federal supervisory authority involved.

11.Additional exemptions. A. i. Notwithstanding the reserve requirement ratios established under paragraphs (2) and (5) of this subsection, a reserve ratio of zero per centum shall apply to any combination of reservable liabilities, which do not exceed $2,000,000 (as adjusted under subparagraph (B)), of each depository institution.
ii. Each depository institution may designate, in accordance with such rules and regulations as the Board shall prescribe, the types and amounts of reservable liabilities to which the reserve ratio of zero per centum shall apply, except that transaction accounts which are designated to be subject to a reserve ratio of zero per centum shall be accounts which would otherwise be subject to a reserve ratio of 3 per centum under paragraph (2).
iii. The Board shall minimize the reporting necessary to determine whether depository institutions have total reservable liabilities of less than $2,000,000 (as adjusted under subparagraph (B)). Consistent with the Board’s responsibility to monitor and control monetary and credit aggregates, depository institutions which have reserve requirements under this subsection equal to zero per centum shall be subject to less overall reporting requirements than depository institutions which have a reserve requirement under this subsection that exceeds zero per centum.

B.i. Beginning in 1982, not later than December 31 of each year, the Board shall issue a regulation increasing for the next succeeding calendar year the dollar amount specified in subparagraph (A), as previously adjusted under this subparagraph, by an amount obtained by multiplying such dollar amount by 80 per centum of the percentage increase in the total reservable liabilities of all depository institutions.
ii. The increase in total reservable liabilities shall be determined by subtracting the amount of total reservable liabilities on June 30 of the preceding calendar year from the amount of total reservable liabilities on June 30 of the calendar year involved. In the case of any such twelve-month period in which there has been a decrease in the total reservable liabilities of all depository institutions, no adjustment shall be made. A decrease in total reservable liabilities shall be determined by substracting the amount of total reservable liabilities on June 30 of the calendar year involved from the amount of total reservable liabilities on June 30 of the previous calendar year.

12.Earnings on balances. A. Balances maintained at a Federal Reserve bank by or on behalf of a depository institution may receive earnings to be paid by the Federal Reserve bank at least once each calendar quarter, at a rate or rates not to exceed the general level of short-term interest rates.
B. The Board may prescribe regulations concerning– i. the payment of earnings in accordance with this paragraph;
ii. the distribution of such earnings to the depository institutions which maintain balances at such banks, or on whose behalf such balances are maintained; and
iii. the responsibilities of depository institutions, Federal Home Loan Banks, and the National Credit Union Administration Central Liquidity Facility with respect to the crediting and distribution of earnings attributable to balances maintained, in accordance with subsection (c)(l)(A), in a Federal Reserve bank by any such entity on behalf of depository institutions.

C.For purposes of this paragraph, the term “depository institution”, in addition to the institutions described in paragraph (l)(A), includes any trust company, corporation organized under section 25A or having an agreement with the Board under section 25, or any branch or agency of a foreign bank (as defined in section l(b) of the International Banking Act of 1978).

[12 USC 461(b). As amended by acts of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 239); Sept. 26, 1918 (40 Stat. 970); May 12, 1933 (48 Stat. 54); Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 706); July 7, 1942 (56 Stat. 648); July 28, 1959 (73 Stat. 264) effective July 28, 1962; Sept. 21, 1966 (80 Stat. 823) (as amended by acts of Sept. 21, 1967 (81 Stat. 226) and Sept. 21, 1968 (82 Stat. 856)); Dec. 23, 1969 (83 Stat. 375); March 31, 1980 (94 Stat. 133, 138); Aug. 13, 1981 (95 Stat. 433); Oct. 15, 1982 (96 Stat. 1520, 1521); Aug. 9, 1989 (103 Stat. 439); Oct. 13, 2006 (120 Stat. 1968, 1969); and July 21, 2010 (124 Stat. 1556). Amendments to subsection 19(b) act of October 13, 2006, were to be effective on October 1, 2011, but Sec. 128 of the act of October 3, 2008 (122 Stat. 3796) accelerated the effective date to October 1, 2008.]

Promulgation of Rules and Regulations Regarding Maintenance of Balances

(c)
1. Reserves held by a depository institution to meet the requirements imposed pursuant to subsection (b) shall, subject to such rules and regulations as the Board shall prescribe, be in the form of– A. balances maintained for such purposes by such depository institution in the Federal Reserve bank of which it is a member or at which it maintains an account, except that (i) the Board may, by regulation or order, permit depository institutions to maintain all or a portion of their required reserves in the form of vault cash, except that any portion so permitted shall be identical for all depository institutions, and (ii) vault cash may be used to satisfy any supplemental reserve requirement imposed pursuant to subsection (b)(4), except that all such vault cash shall be excluded from any computation of earnings pursuant to subsection (b); and
B. balances maintained by a depository institution in a depository institution which maintains required reserve balances at a Federal Reserve bank, in a Federal Home Loan Bank, or in the National Credit Union Administration Central Liquidity Facility, if such depository institution, Federal Home Loan Bank, or National Credit Union Administration Central Liquidity Facility maintains such funds in the form of balances in a Federal Reserve bank of which it is a member or at which it maintains an account. Balances received by a depository institution from a second depository institution and used to satisfy the reserve requirement imposed on such second depository institution by this section shall not be subject to the reserve requirements of this section imposed on such first depository institution, and shall not be subject to assessments or reserves imposed on such first depository institution pursuant to section 7 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1817), section 404 of the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 1727), or section 202 of the Federal Credit Union Act (12 U.S.C. 1782).
C. The balances maintained to meet the reserve requirements of subsection (b) by a depository institution in a Federal Reserve bank or passed through a Federal Home Loan Bank or the National Credit Union Administration Central Liquidity Facility or another depository institution to a Federal Reserve bank may be used to satisfy liquidity requirements which may be imposed under other provisions of Federal or State law.

[12 USC 461(c). As amended by acts of Aug. 15, 1914 (38 Stat. 691); June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 239); July 28, 1959 (73 Stat. 263); Sept. 21, 1966 (80 Stat. 823) (as amended by acts of Sept. 21, 1967 (81 Stat. 226) and Sept. 21, 1968 (82 Stat. 856)); Dec. 23, 1969 (83 Stat. 375); March 31, 1980 (94 Stat. 133, 138); Oct 13, 2006 (120 Stat. 1969, 1980).]

Member Banks Making Security Loans for Others

(d) No member bank shall act as the medium or agent of any nonbanking corporation, partnership, association, business trust, or individual in making loans on the security of stocks, bonds, and other investment securities to brokers or dealers in stocks, bonds, and other investment securities. Every violation of this provision by any member bank shall be punishable by a fine of not more than $100 per day during the continuance of such violation; and such fine may be collected, by suit or otherwise, by the Federal reserve bank of the district in which such member bank is located.

[12 USC 374a. As added by act of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 181) and amended by act of Sept. 21, 1966 (80 Stat. 824) (as amended by acts of Sept. 21, 1967 (81 Stat. 226) and Sept. 21, 1968 (82 Stat. 856)).]

Deposits with Depository Institutions Without Access to Federal Reserve Advances; Discounts for Nonmember Banks

(e) No member bank shall keep on deposit with any depository institution which is not authorized to have access to Federal Reserve advances under section 10(b) of this Act a sum in excess of 10 per centum of its own paid-up capital and surplus. No member bank shall act as the medium or agent of a nonmember bank in applying for or receiving discounts from a Federal reserve bank under the provisions of this Act, except by permission of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

[12 USC 463, 374. As reenacted without change by act of Aug. 15, 1914 (38 Stat. 692); and amended by acts of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 239) (which completely revised this section) and Sept. 21, 1966 (80 Stat. 824) (as amended by acts of Sept. 21, 1967 (81 Stat. 226); Sept. 21, 1968 (82 Stat. 856); and March 31, 1980 (94 Stat. 140).]

Checking Against and Withdrawal of Reserve Balance

(f) The required balance carried by a member bank with a Federal reserve bank may, under the regulations and subject to such penalties as may be prescribed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, be checked against and withdrawn by such member bank for the purpose of meeting existing liabilities.

[12 USC 464. As reenacted without change by act of Aug. 15, 1914 (38 Stat. 692); as amended by acts of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 239) (which completely revised this section July 7, 1942 (56 Stat. 648)); and Sept. 21, 1966 (80 Stat. 824) (as amended by acts of Sept. 21, 1967 (81 Stat. 226) and Sept. 21, 1968 (82 Stat. 856)).]

Deductions in Computing Reserves

(g) In estimating the reserve balances required by this Act, member banks may deduct from the amount of their gross demand deposits the amounts of balances due from other banks (except Federal Reserve banks and foreign banks) and cash items in process of collection payable immediately upon presentation in the United States, within the meaning of these terms as defined by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

[12 USC 465. As amended by acts of Aug. 15, 1914 (38 Stat. 692); June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 240) (which completely revised this section); Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 714); and Sept. 21, 1966 (80 Stat. 824) (as amended by acts of Sept. 21, 1967 (81 Stat. 226) and Sept. 21, 1968 (82 Stat. 856)).]

Reserves of Banks in Dependencies and Insular Possessions

(h) National banks, or banks organized under local laws, located in the dependency or insular possession or any part of the United States outside the continental United States may remain nonmember banks, and shall in that event maintain reserves and comply with all the conditions now provided by law regulating them; or said banks may, with the consent of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, become member banks of any one of the reserve districts, and shall in that event take stock, maintain reserves, and be subject to all the other provisions of this Act.

[12 USC 466. As reenacted without change by act of Aug. 15, 1914 (38 Stat. 692); and as amended by acts of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 240); June 25, 1959 (73 Stat. 142) and Sept. 21, 1966 (80 Stat. 824) (as amended by acts of Sept. 21, 1967 (81 Stat. 226) and Sept. 21, 1968 (82 Stat. 856)). The "continental United States" is defined in the third paragraph of section 1 of the Federal Reserve Act to mean the "States of the United States and the District of Columbia."]

Interest on Demand Deposits

[Subsection (i) (12 USC 371a) was repealed by act of July 21, 2010 (124 Stat. 1640)].

Advertisement of Interest on Time and Savings Deposits

(j) The Board may from time to time, after consulting with the Board of Directors of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, prescribe rules governing the advertisement of interest on deposits by member banks on time and savings deposits. The provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to any deposit which is payable only at an office of a member bank located outside of the States of the United States and the District of Columbia. During the period commencing on October 15, 1962, and ending on October 15, 1968, the provisions of this paragraph shall not apply to the rate of interest which may be paid by member banks on time deposits of foreign governments, monetary and financial authorities of foreign governments when acting as such, or international financial institutions of which the United States is a member.

[12 USC 371b. As added by act of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 182). Amended by acts of Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 714); Oct. 15, 1962 (76 Stat. 953); July 21, 1965 (79 Stat. 244); Sept. 21, 1966 (80 Stat. 824) (as amended by acts of Sept. 21, 1967 (81 Stat. 226) and Sept. 21, 1968 (82 Stat. 856), Joint Resolution of Sept. 22, 1969 (83 Stat. 115); Act of Dec. 23, 1969 (83 Stat. 371); Joint Resolution of March 31, 1971 (85 Stat. 13); and act of May 18, 1971 (85 Stat. 38)); Sept. 21, 1968 (82 Stat. 856); July 6, 1973 (87 Stat. 147); Aug. 16, 1973 (87 Stat. 342); Oct. 28, 1974 (88 Stat. 1505), Dec. 31, 1975 (89 Stat. 1124); April 19, 1977 (91 Stat. 49); and Nov. 16, 1977 (91 Stat. 1387).]

Applicability of State Usury Ceilings to Certain Obligations Issued by Bank and Affiliates

[Subsection (k) (12 USC 371b-1) was repealed by act of March 31, 1980 (94 Stat. 168).]

Civil Money Penalty

(l)
1. Any member bank which, and any institution-affiliated party (within the meaning of section 3(u) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) with respect to such member bank who, violates any provision of this section, or any regulation issued pursuant thereto, shall forfeit and pay a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each day during which such violation continues.
2. Notwithstanding paragraph (1), any member bank which, and any institution-affiliated party (within the meaning of section 3(u) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) with respect to such member bank who– A. i. commits any violation described in paragraph (1);
ii. recklessly engages in an unsafe or unsound practice in conducting the affairs of such member bank; or
iii. breaches any fiduciary duty;

B. which violation, practice, or breach– i. is part of a pattern of misconduct;
ii. causes or is likely to cause more than a minimal loss to such member bank; or
iii. results in pecuniary gain or other benefit to such party,
shall forfeit and pay a civil penalty of not more than $25,000 for each day during which such violation, practice, or breach continues.

3. Notwithstanding paragraphs (1) and (2), any member bank which, and any institution-affiliated party (within the meaning of section 3(u) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) with respect to such member bank who– A. knowingly– i. commits any violation described in paragraph (1);
ii. engages in any unsafe or unsound practice in conducting the affairs of such member bank; or
iii. breaches any fiduciary duty; and

B. knowingly or recklessly causes a substantial loss to such member bank or a substantial pecuniary gain or other benefit to such party by reason of such violation, practice, or breach,
shall forfeit and pay a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed the applicable maximum amount determined under paragraph (4) for each day during which such violation, practice, or breach continues.

4. The maximum daily amount of any civil penalty which may be assessed pursuant to paragraph (3) for any violation, practice, or breach described in such paragraph is– A. in the case of any person other than a member bank, an amount not to exceed $1,000,000; and
B. in the case of a member bank, an amount not to exceed the lesser of — i. $1,000,000; or
ii. 1 percent of the total assets of such member bank.

5. Any penalty imposed under paragraph (1), (2), or (3) may be assessed and collected by the Board in the manner provided in subparagraphs (E), (F), (G), and (I) of section 8(i)(2) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act for penalties imposed (under such section) and any such assessment shall be subject to the provisions of such section.
6. The member bank or other person against whom any penalty is assessed under this subsection shall be afforded an agency hearing if such member bank or person submits a request for such hearing within 20 days after the issuance of the notice of assessment. Section 8(h) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act shall apply to any proceeding under this subsection.
7. All penalties collected under authority of this subsection shall be deposited into the Treasury.
8. For purposes of this section, the term “violate” includes any action (alone or with another or others) for or toward causing, bringing about, participating in, counseling, or aiding or abetting a violation.
9. The Board shall prescribe regulations establishing such procedures as may be necessary to carry out this subsection.

[12 USC 505, as added by act of Nov. 10, 1978 (92 Stat. 3642) and amended by acts of Oct. 15, 1982 (96 Stat. 1522, 1523) and Aug. 9, 1989 (103 Stat. 472).]

Notice Under This Section After Separation from Service

(m) The resignation, termination of employment or participation, or separation of an institution-affiliated party (within the meaning of section 3(u) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) with respect to a member bank (including a separation caused by the closing of such a bank) shall not affect the jurisdiction and authority of the Board to issue any notice and proceed under this section against any such party, if such notice is served before the end of the 6-year period beginning on the date such party ceased to be such a party with respect to such bank (whether such date occurs before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this subsection).

[12 USC 505. As added by act of Aug. 9, 1989 (103 Stat. 461).]

Section 20. National Bank Notes Redemption Fund as Reserve

1. Fund for Redemption of National Bank Notes Not to Be Counted as Reserve
So much of sections two and three of the Act of June twentieth, eighteen hundred and seventy-four, entitled “An Act fixing the amount of United States notes, providing for a redistribution of the national-bank currency, and for other purposes,” as provides that the fund deposited by any national banking association with the Treasurer of the United States for the redemption of its notes shall be counted as a part of its lawful reserve as provided in the Act aforesaid, is hereby repealed. And from and after the passage of this Act such fund of five per centum shall in no case be counted by any national banking association as a part of its lawful reserve.
[12 USC 121. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended. Section 3 of the act of June 20, 1874, was repealed by act of Sept. 23, 1994 (108 Stat. 2292).]

Section 21. Bank Examination

Amendment of Section 5240, Revised Statutes

Section fifty-two hundred and forty, United States Revised Statutes, is amended to read as follows:

1. Examination of National Banks and Affiliates of National Banks

The Comptroller of the Currency, with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury, shall appoint examiners who shall examine every national bank as often as the Comptroller of the Currency shall deem necessary. The examiner making the examination of any national bank shall have power to make a thorough examination of all the affairs of the bank and in doing so he shall have power to administer oaths and to examine any of the officers and agents thereof under oath and shall make a full and detailed report of the condition of said bank to the Comptroller of the Currency. Provided, That in making the examination of any national bank the examiners shall include such an examination of the affairs of all its affiliates other than member banks as shall be necessary to disclose fully the relations between such bank and such affiliates and the effect of such relations upon the affairs of such bank; and in the event of the refusal to give any information required in the course of the examination of any such affiliate, or in the event of the refusal to permit such examination, all the rights, privileges, and franchises of the bank shall be subject to forfeiture in accordance with section 2 of the Federal Reserve Act, as amended (U.S.C., title 12, secs. 141, 222-225, 281-286, and 502). The Comptroller of the Currency shall have power, and he is hereby authorized, to publish the report of his examination of any national banking association or affiliate which shall not within one hundred and twenty days after notification of the recommendations or suggestions of the Comptroller, based on said examination, have complied with the same to his satisfaction. Ninety days’ notice prior to such publicity shall be given to the bank or affiliate.

[12 USC 481; Revised Statutes § 5240, ¶ 1. As amended by acts of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 192); April 30, 1956 (70 Stat. 124); and March 31, 1980 (94 Stat. 188).]

2. Powers in Examining Affiliates; Expenses of Examinations

The examiner making the examination of any affiliate of a national bank shall have power to make a thorough examination of all the affairs of the affiliate, and in doing so he shall have power to administer oaths and to examine any of the officers, directors, employees, and agents thereof under oath and to make a report of his findings to the Comptroller of the Currency. If any affiliate of a national bank refuses to pay any assessments, fees, or other charges imposed by the Comptroller of the Currency pursuant to this section or fails to make such payment not later than 60 days after the date on which they are imposed, the Comptroller of the Currency may impose such assessments, fees, or charges against the affiliated national bank, and such assessments, fees, or charges shall be paid by such national bank. If the affiliation is with 2 or more national banks, such assessments, fees, or charges may be imposed on, and collected from, any or all of such national banks in such proportions as the Comptroller of the Currency may prescribe. The examiners and assistant examiners making the examinations of national banking associations and affiliates thereof herein provided for and the chief examiners, reviewing examiners and other persons whose services may be required in connection with such examinations or the reports thereof, shall be employed by the Comptroller of the Currency with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury; the employment and compensation of examiners, chief examiners, reviewing examiners, assistant examiners, and of the other employees of the office of the Comptroller of the Currency whose compensation is and shall be paid from assessments on banks or affiliates thereof or from other fees or charges imposed pursuant to this section shall be set and adjusted subject to chapter 71 of title 5, United States Code, and without regard to the provisions of other laws applicable to officers or employees of the United States. The funds derived from such assessment may be deposited by the Comptroller of the Currency in accordance with the provisions of section 5234 of the Revised Statutes (U.S.C., title 12, sec. 192) and shall not be construed to be Government funds or appropriated monies; and the Comptroller of the Currency is authorized and empowered to prescribe regulations governing the computation and assessment of the expenses of examinations herein provided for and the collection of such assessments from the banks and/or affiliates examined. Such funds shall not be subject to apportionment for the purpose of chapter 15 of title 31, United States Code, or under any other authority. If any affiliate of a national bank shall refuse to permit an examiner to make an examination of the affiliate or shall refuse to give any information required in the course of any such examination, the national bank with which it is affiliated shall be subject to a penalty of not more than $5,000 for each day that any such refusal shall continue. Such penalty may be assessed by the Comptroller of the Currency and collected in the same manner as expenses of examinations. The Comptroller of the Currency, upon the request of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, is authorized to assign examiners appointed under this section to examine foreign operations of State banks which are members of the Federal Reserve System.

[12 USC 481; Revised Statutes § 5240, ¶ 2. As added by act of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 192); and amended by acts of Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 722); June 30, 1948 (62 Stat. 1163); March 31, 1980 (94 Stat. 188); Aug. 10, 1987 (101 Stat. 633); Aug. 9, 1989 (103 Stat. 470); Dec. 19, 1991 (105 Stat. 2248); and July 21, 2010 (124 Stat. 1526).]

3. Salaries of Examiners; Assessments to Defray Expenses

Notwithstanding any of the preceding provisions of this section or section 301(f)(1) of title 31, United States Code, to the contrary, the Comptroller of the Currency shall, subject to chapter 71 of title 5, United States Code, fix the compensation and number of, and appoint and direct, all employees of the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency. Rates of basic pay for all employees of the Office may be set and adjusted by the Comptroller without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 or subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, United States Code. The Comptroller may provide additional compensation and benefits to employees of the Office if the same type of compensation or benefits are then being provided by any other Federal bank regulatory agency or, if not then being provided, could be provided by such an agency under applicable provisions of law, rule, or regulation. In setting and adjusting the total amount of compensation and benefits for employees of the Office, the Comptroller shall consult with, and seek to maintain comparability with, other Federal banking agencies.

The Comptroller of the Currency may impose and collect assessments, fees, or other charges as necessary or appropriate to carry out the responsibilities of the office of the Comptroller. Such assessments, fees, and other charges shall be set to meet the Comptroller’s expenses in carrying out authorized activities.

[12 USC 482; Revised Statutes § 5240, ¶¶ 3 and 4. As amended by acts of Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 722); April 30, 1956 (70 Stat. 124); Aug. 9, 1989 (103 Stat 520); Dec. 19, 1991 (105 Stat. 2248); Oct. 28, 1992 (106 Stat. 4079); Sept. 23, 1994 (108 Stat. 2232); and July 21, 2010 (124 Stat. 1526).]

4. Special Examinations by Reserve Banks

In addition to the examinations made and conducted by the Comptroller of the Currency, every Federal reserve bank may, with the approval of the Federal reserve agent or the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, provide for special examination of member banks within its district. The expense of such examinations may, in the discretion of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, be assessed against the banks examined, and, when so assessed, shall be paid by the banks examined. Such examinations shall be so conducted as to inform the Federal reserve bank of the condition of its member banks and of the lines of credit which are being extended by them. Every Federal reserve bank shall at all times furnish to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System such information as may be demanded concerning the condition of any member bank within the district of the said Federal reserve bank.

[12 USC 483; Revised Statutes § 5240, ¶ 5. As amended by act of June 26, 1930 (46 Stat. 814).]

5. Visitatorial Powers

(a) No national bank shall be subject to any visitatorial powers other than such as are authorized by law, or vested in the courts of justice or such as shall be or shall have been exercised or directed by Congress, or by either House thereof or by any committee of Congress or of either House duly authorized.

(b) Notwithstanding subsection (a) of this section, lawfully authorized State auditors and examiners may, at reasonable times and upon reasonable notice to a bank, review its records solely to ensure compliance with applicable State unclaimed property or escheat laws upon reasonable cause to believe that the bank has failed to comply with such laws.

[12 USC 484; Revised Statutes § 5240, ¶ 6. As amended by acts of Oct. 15, 1982 (96 Stat. 1521) and Jan. 12, 1983 (96 Stat. 2510).]

6. Examinations of Federal Reserve Banks

The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall, at least once each year, order an examination of each Federal reserve bank, and upon joint application of ten member banks the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall order a special examination and report of the condition of any Federal reserve bank.

[12 USC 485; Revised Statutes § 5240, ¶ 7. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

7. Expenses of Examining Trust Departments of National Banks

In addition to the expense of examination to be assessed by the Comptroller of the Currency as heretofore provided, all national banks exercising fiduciary powers and all banks or trust companies in the District of Columbia exercising fiduciary powers shall be assessed by the Comptroller of the Currency for the examination of their fiduciary activities a fee adequate to cover the expense thereof.

[12 USC 482. As added by act of July 2, 1932 (47 Stat. 568); and amended by act of April 30, 1956 (70 Stat. 124).]

8. Waiver of Reports and Examinations of Affiliates

Whenever member banks are required to obtain reports from affiliates, or whenever affiliates of member banks are required to submit to examination, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System or the Comptroller of the Currency, as the case may be, may waive such requirements with respect to any such report or examination of any affiliate if in the judgment of the said Board or Comptroller, respectively, such report or examination is not necessary to disclose fully the relations between such affiliate and such bank and the effect thereof upon the affairs of such bank.

[12 USC 486. As added by act of Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 715).]

Section 22. Offenses of Examiners, Member Banks, Officers, and Directors

1. Insolvency of Member Banks

[Subsections (a), (b), and (c) were repealed by section 21, act of June 25, 1948 (62 Stat. 864), but substance thereof was incorporated in 18 USC 212, 213, 215, 655, 1906, and 1909.]

Purchases by Member Banks from Their Directors

(d) [Reserved]

[12 USC 375. As added by act of Sept. 26, 1918 (40 Stat. 971) and amended by act of July 21, 2010 (124 Stat. 1615).]

Interest on Deposits of Directors, Officers, and Employees

(e) No member bank shall pay to any director, officer, attorney, or employee a greater rate of interest on the deposits of such director, officer, attorney, or employee than that paid to other depositors on similar deposits with such member bank.

[12 USC 376. As added by act of June 21, 1917 (40 Stat. 240); and amended by act of Sept. 26, 1918 (40 Stat. 971), which completely revised this section.]

Liability for Damages Resulting from Violations

(f) If the directors or officers of any member bank shall knowingly violate or permit any of the agents, officers, or directors of any member bank to violate any of the provisions of this section or regulations of the board made under authority thereof, or any of the provisions of sections 217, 218, 219, 220, 655, 1005, 1014, 1906, or 1909 of title 18, United States Code, every director and officer participating in or assenting to such violation shall be held liable in his personal and individual capacity for all damages which the member bank, its shareholders, or any other persons shall have sustained in consequence of such violation.

[12 USC 503. As added by act of Sept. 26, 1918 (40 Stat. 971), which completely revised this section; amended by act of Sept. 3, 1954 (68 Stat. 1236). Sections 217, 218, 219, and 220 were respectively redesignated sections 212, 213, 214, and 215 by the act of Oct. 23, 1962 (76 Stat. 1125).]

Loans to Executive Officers by Member Banks

(g)
1. Except as authorized under this subsection, no member bank may extend credit in any manner to any of its own executive officers. No executive officer of any member bank may become indebted to that member bank except by means of an extension of credit which the bank is authorized to make under this subsection. Any extension of credit under this subsection shall be promptly reported to the board of directors of the bank, and may be made only if– A. The bank would be authorized to make it to borrowers other than its officers;
B. it is on terms not more favorable than those afforded other borrowers;
C. the officer has submitted a detailed current financial statement; and
D. it is on condition that it shall become due and payable on demand of the bank at any time when the officer is indebted to any other bank or banks on account of extensions of credit of any one of the three categories respectively referred to in paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) in an aggregate amount greater than the amount of credit of the same category that could be extended to him by the bank of which he is an officer.

2. A member bank may make a loan to any executive officer of the bank if, at the time the loan is made– A. it is secured by a first lien on a dwelling which is expected, after the making of the loan, to be owned by the officer and used by him as his residence, and
B. no other loan by the bank to the officer under authority of this paragraph is outstanding.

3. A member bank may make extensions of credit to any executive officer of the bank, to finance the education of the children of the officer.
4. A member bank may make extensions of credit not otherwise specifically authorized under this subsection to any executive officer of the bank, in an amount prescribed in a regulation of the member bank’s appropriate Federal banking agency.
5. Except to the extent permitted under paragraph (4), a member bank may not extend credit to a partnership in which one or more of its executive officers are partners having either individually or together a majority interest. For the purposes of paragraph (4), the full amount of any credit so extended shall be considered to have been extended to each officer of the bank who is a member of the partnership.
6. This subsection does not prohibit any executive officer of a member bank from endorsing or guaranteeing for the protection of the bank any loan or other asset previously acquired by the bank in good faith or from incurring any indebtedness to the bank for the purpose of protecting the bank against loss or giving financial assistance to it.
7. Each day that any extension of credit in violation of this subsection exists is a continuation of the violation for the purposes of section 8 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act.
8. The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may prescribe such rules and regulations, including definitions of terms, as it deems necessary to effectuate the purposes and to prevent evasions of this subsection.

[12 USC 375a. As added by act of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 182); amended by Public Resolution approved June 14, 1935 (49 Stat. 375); and by acts of Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 716); April 25, 1938 (52 Stat. 223); June 20, 1939 (53 Stat. 842); July 3, 1967 (81 Stat. 109); Nov. 10, 1978 (92 Stat. 3665); Oct. 15, 1982 (96 Stat. 1522); Sept. 23, 1994 (108 Stat. 2233); and Oct. 13, 2006 (120 Stat. 1978).]

Extensions of Credit to Executive Officers, Directors, and Principal Shareholders of Member Banks

(h)
1. No member bank may extend credit to any of its executive officers, directors, or principal shareholders, or to any related interest of such a person, except to the extent permitted under paragraphs (2), (3), (4), and (6).
2.A. A member bank may extend credit to its executive officers, directors, or principal shareholders, or to any related interest of such a person, only if the extension of credit– i. is made on substantially the same terms, including interest rates and collateral, as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions by the bank with persons who are not executive officers, directors, principal shareholders, or employees of the bank;
ii. does not involve more than the normal risk of repayment or present other unfavorable features; and
iii. the bank follows credit underwriting procedures that are not less stringent than those applicable to comparable transactions by the bank with persons who are not executive officers, directors, principal shareholders, or employees of the bank.

B. Nothing in this paragraph shall prohibit any extension of credit made pursuant to a benefit or compensation program– i. that is widely available to employees of the member bank; and
ii. that does not give preference to any officer, director, or principal shareholder of the member bank, or to any related interest of such person, over other employees of the member bank.

3. A member bank may extend credit to a person described in paragraph (1) in an amount that, when aggregated with the amount of all other outstanding extensions of credit by that bank to each such person and that person’s related interests, would exceed an amount prescribed by regulation of the appropriate Federal banking agency (as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) only if– A. the extension of credit has been approved in advance by a majority vote of that bank’s entire board of directors; and
B. the interested party has abstained from participating, directly or indirectly, in the deliberations or voting on the extension of credit.

4. A member bank may extend credit to any executive officer, director, or principal shareholder, or to any related interest of such a person, only if the extension of credit is in an amount that, when aggregated with the amount of all outstanding extensions of credit by that bank to that person and that person’s related interests, would not exceed the limits on loans to a single borrower established by section 5200 of the Revised Statutes. For purposes of this paragraph, section 5200 of the Revised Statutes shall be deemed to apply to a State member bank as if the State member bank were a national banking association.
5.A. A member bank may extend credit to any executive officer, director, or principal shareholder, or to any related interest of such a person, if the extension of credit is in an amount that, when aggregated with the amount of all outstanding extensions of credit by that bank to its executive officers, directors, principal shareholders, and those persons’ related interests would not exceed the bank’s unimpaired capital and unimpaired surplus.
B. The Board may, by regulation, prescribe a limit that is more stringent than that contained in subparagraph (A).
C. The Board may, by regulation, make exceptions to subparagraph (A) for member banks with less than $100,000,000 in deposits if the Board determines that the exceptions are important to avoid constricting the availability of credit in small communities or to attract directors to such banks. In no case may the aggregate amount of all outstanding extensions of credit to a bank’s executive officers, directors, principal shareholders, and those persons’ related interests be more than 2 times the bank’s unimpaired capital and unimpaired surplus.

6.A. If any executive officer or director has an account at the member bank, the bank may not pay on behalf of that person an amount exceeding the funds on deposit in the account.
B. Subparagraph (A) does not prohibit a member bank from paying funds in accordance with– i. a written preauthorized, interest-bearing extension of credit specifying a method of repayment; or
ii. a written preauthorized transfer of funds from another account of the executive officer or director at that bank.

7. No executive officer, director, or principal shareholder shall knowingly receive (or knowingly permit any of that person’s related interests to receive) from a member bank, directly or indirectly, any extension of credit not authorized under this subsection.
8.A. For purposes of this subsection, any executive officer, director, or principal shareholder (as the case may be) of any company of which the member bank is a subsidiary, or of any other subsidiary of that company, shall be deemed to be an executive officer, director, or principal shareholder (as the case may be) of the member bank.
B. The Board may, by regulation, make exceptions to subparagraph (A) for any executive officer or director of a subsidiary of a company that controls the member bank if– i. the executive officer or director does not have authority to participate, and does not participate, in major policymaking functions of the member bank; and
ii. the assets of such subsidiary do not exceed 10 percent of the consolidated assets of a company that controls the member bank and such subsidiary (and is not controlled by any other company).

9. For purposes of this subsection: A. i. Except as provided in clause (ii), the term “company” means any corporation, partnership, business or other trust, association, joint venture, pool syndicate, sole proprietorship, unincorporated organization, or other business entity.
ii. The term “company” does not include– I. an insured depository institution (as defined in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act); or
II. a corporation the majority of the shares of which are owned by the United States or by any State.

B. A person controls a company or bank if that person, directly or indirectly, or acting through or in concert with 1 or more persons– i. owns, controls, or has the power to vote 25 percent or more of any class of the company’s voting securities;
ii. controls in any manner the election of a majority of the company’s directors; or
iii. has the power to exercise a controlling influence over the company’s management or policies.

C. A person is an “executive officer” of a company or bank if that person participates or has authority to participate (other than as a director) in major policymaking functions of the company or bank.
D. i. A member bank extends credit to a person by– I. making or renewing any loan, granting a line of credit, or entering into any similar transaction as a result of which the person becomes obligated (directly or indirectly, or by any means whatsoever) to pay money or its equivalent to the bank; or
II. having credit exposure to the person arising from a derivative transaction (as defined in section 5200(b) of the Revised Statutes of the United States (12 U.S.C. 84(b))), repurchase agreement, reverse repurchase agreement, securities lending transaction, or securities borrowing transaction between the member bank and the person.

ii. The Board may, by regulation, make exceptions to clause (i) for transactions that the Board determines pose minimal risk.

E. The term “member bank” includes any subsidiary of a member bank.
F. The term “principal shareholder”– i. means any person that directly or indirectly, or acting through or in concert with one or more persons, owns, controls, or has the power to vote more than 10 percent of any class of voting securities of a member bank or company; and
ii. does not include a company of which a member bank is a subsidiary.

G. A “related interest” of a person is– i. any company controlled by that person; and
ii. any political or campaign committee that is controlled by that person or the funds or services of which will benefit that person.

H. The term “subsidiary” has the same meaning as in section 2 of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956.

10.The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may prescribe such regulations, including definitions of terms, as it determines to be necessary to effectuate the purposes and prevent evasions of this subsection.

[12 USC 375b. As added by act of Nov. 10, 1978 (92 Stat. 3644) and amended by acts of Oct. 15, 1982 (96 Stat. 1520, 1522); Dec. 19, 1991 (105 Stat. 2355, 2358, 2359); Oct. 28, 1992 (106 Stat. 3895, 4086); Sept. 23, 1994 (108 Stat. 2233); Sept. 30 1996 (110 Stat. 3009-410); and July 21, 2010 (124 Stat. 1614).]

[Subsections (i), (j), and (k) were repealed by section 21, act of June 25, 1948 (62 Stat. 866). However, substance of subsections (h), (i), and (k) was incorporated in 18 USC 214, 656, 1005, and 1014. Subsection (j), which prohibited members of Congress from receiving benefits from any contracts or agreements of any Federal Reserve Bank was in effect continued in title 18, section 433, which does not include contracts of Federal Reserve Banks as exempt from the prohibition of section 431 against such members having an interest in federal agency contracts.]

Section 23. Interbank Liabilities *
(a) The purpose of this section is to limit the risks that the failure of a large depository institution (whether or not that institution is an insured depository institution) would pose to insured depository institutions.

Aggregate Limits on Insured Depository Institutions’ Exposure to Other Depository Institutions
(b) The Board shall, by regulation or order, prescribe standards that have the effect of limiting the risks posed by an insured depository institution’s exposure to any other depository institution.
[12 USC 371b-2(b). As added by act of Dec. 19, 1991 (105 Stat. 2362).]

“Exposure” Defined
(c) 1.For purposes of subsection (b), an insured depository institution’s “exposure” to another depository institution means– A.all extensions of credit to the other depository institution, regardless of name or description, including– i.all deposits at the other depository institution;
ii.all purchases of securities or other assets from the other depository institution subject to an agreement to repurchase; and
iii.all guarantees, acceptances, or letters of credit (including endorsements or standby letters of credit) on behalf of the other depository institution;

B.all purchases of or investments in securities issued by the other depository institution;
C.all securities issued by the other depository institution accepted as collateral for an extension of credit to any person; and
D.all similar transactions that the Board by regulation determines to be exposure for purposes of this section.

2.The Board may, at its discretion, by regulation or order, exempt transactions from the definition of “exposure” if it finds the exemptions to be in the public interest and consistent with the purpose of this section.
3.For purposes of this section, any transaction by an insured depository institution with any person is a transaction with another depository institution to the extent that the proceeds of the transaction are used for the benefit of, or transferred to, that other depository institution.

[12 USC 371b-2(c). As added by act of Dec. 19, 1991 (105 Stat. 2362.]

“Insured Depository Institution” Defined
(d) For purposes of this section, the term “insured depository institution” has the same meaning as in section 3 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act.
[12 USC 371b-2(d). As added by act of Dec. 19, 1991 (105 Stat. 2362).]

Rulemaking Authority; Enforcement
(e) The Board may issue such regulations and orders, including definitions consistent with this section, as may be necessary to administer and carry out the purpose of this section. The appropriate Federal banking agency shall enforce compliance with those regulations under section 8 of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act.
[12 USC 371b-2(e). As added by act of Dec. 19, 1991 (105 Stat. 2362).]

* The original section 23 was repealed by section 7 of the act of Sept. 8, 1959 (73 Stat. 457). This section 23 is effective Dec. 19, 1992.

Section 23A. Relations with Affiliates

Restrictions on Transactions with Affiliates

(a)
1. A member bank and its subsidiaries may engage in a covered transaction with an affiliate only if– A. in the case of any affiliate, the aggregate amount of covered transactions of the member bank and its subsidiaries will not exceed 10 per centum of the capital stock and surplus of the member bank; and
B. in the case of all affiliates, the aggregate amount of covered transactions of the member bank and its subsidiaries will not exceed 20 per centum of the capital stock and surplus of the member bank.

2. For the purpose of this section, any transaction by a member bank with any person shall be deemed to be a transaction with an affiliate to the extent that the proceeds of the transaction are used for the benefit of, or transferred to, that affiliate.
3. a member bank and its subsidiaries may not purchase a low-quality asset from an affiliate unless the bank or such subsidiary, pursuant to an independent credit evaluation, committed itself to purchase such asset prior to the time such asset was acquired by the affiliate.
4. Any covered transactions and any transactions exempt under subsection (d) between a member bank and an affiliate shall be on terms and conditions that are consistent with safe and sound banking practices.

Definitions

(b) For the purpose of this section–
1. the term “affiliate” with respect to a member bank means– A. any company that controls the member bank and any other company that is controlled by the company that controls the member bank;
B. a bank subsidiary of the member bank;
C. any company– i. that is controlled directly or indirectly, by a trust or otherwise, by or for the benefit of shareholders who beneficially or otherwise control, directly or indirectly, by trust or otherwise, the member bank or any company that controls the member bank; or
ii. in which a majority of its directors or trustees constitute a majority of the persons holding any such office with the member bank or any company that controls the member bank;

D. any investment fund with respect to which a member bank or affiliate thereof is an investment adviser; and
E. any company that the Board determines by regulation or order to have a relationship with the member bank or any subsidiary or affiliate of the member bank, such that covered transactions by the member bank or its subsidiary with that company may be affected by the relationship to the detriment of the member bank or its subsidiary; and

2. The following shall not be considered to be an affiliate: A. any company, other than a bank, that is a subsidiary of a member bank, unless a determination is made under paragraph (1)(E) not to exclude such subisidary company from the definition of affiliate;
B. any company engaged solely in holding the premises of the member bank;
C. any company engaged solely in conducting a safe deposit business;
D. any company engaged solely in holding obligations of the United States or its agencies or obligations fully guaranteed by the United States or its agencies as to principal and interest; and
E. any company where control results from the exercise of rights arising out of a bona fide debt previously contracted, but only for the period of time specifically authorized under applicable State or Federal law or regulation or, in the absence of such law or regulation, for a period of two years from the date of the exercise of such rights or the effective date of this Act, whichever date is later, subject, upon application, to authorization by the Board for good cause shown of extensions of time for not more than one year at a time, but such extensions in the aggregate shall not exceed three years;
F. a company or shareholder shall be deemed to have control over another company if– i. such company or shareholder, directly or indirectly, or acting through one or more other persons owns, controls, or has power to vote 25 per centum or more of any class of voting securities of the other company;
ii. such company or shareholder controls in any manner the election of a majority of the directors or trustees of the other company; or
iii. the Board determines, after notice and opportunity for hearing, that such company or shareholder, directly or indirectly, exercises a controlling influence over the management or policies of the other company; and

G. notwithstanding any other provision of this section, no company shall be deemed to own or control another company by virtue of its ownership or control of shares in a fiduciary capacity, except as provided in paragraph (1)(C) of this subsection or if the company owning or controlling such shares is a business trust;

3. the term “subsidiary” with respect to a specified company means a company that is controlled by such specified company;
4. the term “bank” includes a State bank, national bank, banking association, and trust company;
5. the term “company” means a corporation, partnership, business trust, association, or similar organization and, unless specifically excluded, the term “company” includes a “member bank” and a “bank”;
6. the term “covered transaction” means with respect to an affiliate of a member bank– A. a loan or extension of credit to the affiliate, including a purchase of assets subject to an agreement to repurchase;
B. a purchase of or an investment in securities issued by the affiliate;
C. a purchase of assets from the affiliate, except such purchase of real and personal property as may be specifically exempted by the Board by order or regulation;
D. the acceptance of securities or other debt obligations issued by the affiliate as collateral security for a loan or extension of credit to any person or company;
E. the issuance of a guarantee, acceptance, or letter of credit, including an endorsement or standby letter of credit, on behalf of an affiliate;
F. a transaction with an affiliate that involves the borrowing or lending of securities, to the extent that the transaction causes a member bank or a subsidiary to have credit exposure to the affiliate; or
G. a derivative transaction, as defined in paragraph (3) of section 5200(b) of the Revised Statutes of the United States (12 U.S.C. 84(b)), with an affiliate, to the extent that the transaction causes a member bank or a subsidiary to have credit exposure to the affiliate;

7. the term “aggregate amount of covered transactions” means the amount of the covered transactions about to be engaged in added to the current amount of all outstanding covered transactions;
8. the term “securities” means stocks, bonds, debentures, notes, or other similar obligations; and
9. the term “low-quality asset” means an asset that falls in any one or more of the following categories: A. an asset classified as “substandard”, “doubtful”, or “loss” or treated as “other loans especially mentioned” in the most recent report of examination or inspection of an affiliate prepared by either a Federal or State supervisory agency;
B. an asset in a nonaccrual status;
C. an asset on which principal or interest payments are more than thirty days past due; or
D. an asset whose terms have been renegotiated or compromised due to the deteriorating financial condition of the obligor.

10. In addition to paragraph (3), a company or shareholder shall be presumed to control any other company if the company or shareholder, directly or indirectly, or acting through 1 or more other persons, owns or controls 15 percent or more of the equity capital of the other company pursuant to subparagraph (H) or (I) of section 4(k)(4) of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 or rules adopted under section 122 of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, if any, unless the company or shareholder provides information acceptable to the Board to rebut this presumption of control.

Collateral for Certain Transactions with Affiliates

(c)
1. Each loan or extension of credit to, or guarantee, acceptance, or letter of credit issued on behalf of, an affiliate by a member bank or its subsidiary, and any credit exposure of a member bank or a subsidiary to an affiliate resulting from a securities borrowing or lending transaction, or a derivative transaction, shall be secured at all times by collateral having a market value equal to- A. 100 per centum of the amount of such loan or extension of credit, guarantee, acceptance, letter of credit, or credit exposure if the collateral is composed of– i. obligations of the United States or its agencies;
ii. obligations fully guaranteed by the United States or its agencies as to principal and interest;
iii. notes, drafts, bills of exchange or bankers’ acceptances that are eligible for rediscount or purchase by a Federal Reserve Bank; or
iv. a segregated, earmarked deposit account with the member bank;

B. 110 per centum of the amount of such loan or extension of credit, guarantee, acceptance, letter of credit, or credit exposure if the collateral is composed of obligations of any State or political subdivision of any State;
C. 120 per centum of the amount of such loan or extension of credit, guarantee, acceptance, letter of credit, or credit exposure if the collateral is composed of other debt instruments, including receivables; or
D. 130 per centum of the amount of such loan or extension of credit, guarantee, acceptance, letter of credit, or credit exposure if the collateral is composed of stock, leases, or other real or personal property.

2. A low-quality asset shall not be acceptable as collateral for a loan or extension of credit to, or guarantee, acceptance, or letter of credit issued on behalf of, an affiliate, or credit exposure to an affiliate resulting from a securities borrowing or lending transaction, or derivative transaction.
3. The securities or other debt obligations issued by an affiliate of the member bank shall not be acceptable as collateral for a loan or extension of credit to, guarantee, acceptance, or letter of credit issued on behalf of, or credit exposure from a securities borrowing or lending transaction, or derivative transaction to, that affiliate or any other affiliate of the member bank.
4. The collateral requirements of this paragraph shall not be applicable to an acceptance that is already fully secured either by attached documents or by other property having an ascertainable market value that is involved in the transaction.

Exemptions

(d) The provisions of this section, except paragraph (a)(4), shall not be applicable to–
1. any transaction, subject to the prohibition contained in subsection (a)(3), with a bank– A. which controls 80 per centum or more of the voting shares of the member bank;
B. in which the member bank controls 80 per centum or more of the voting shares; or
C. in which 80 per centum or more of the voting shares are controlled by the company that controls 80 per centum or more of the voting shares of the member bank;

2. making deposits in an affiliated bank or affiliated foreign bank in the ordinary course of correspondent business, subject to any restrictions that the Board may prescribe by regulation or order;
3. giving immediate credit to an affiliate for uncollected items received in the ordinary course of business;
4. making a loan or extension of credit to, issuing a guarantee, acceptance, or letter of credit on behalf of, or having credit exposure resulting from a securities borrowing or lending transaction, or derivative transaction to, an affiliate that is fully secured by– A. obligations of the United States or its agencies;
B. obligations fully guaranteed by the United States or its agencies as to principal and interest; or
C. a segregated, earmarked deposit account with the member bank;

5. purchasing securities issued by any company of the kinds described in section 4(c)(1) of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956;
6. purchasing assets having a readily identifiable and publicly available market quotation and purchased at that market quotation or, subject to the prohibition contained in subsection (a)(3), purchasing loans on a nonrecourse basis from affiliated banks; and
7. purchasing from an affiliate a loan or extension of credit that was originated by the member bank and sold to the affiliate subject to a repurchase agreement or with recourse.

(e) Rules relating to banks with financial subsidiaries.
1. For purposes of this section and section 23B, the term “financial subsidiary” means any company that is a subsidiary of a bank that would be a financial subsidiary of a national bank under section 5136A of the Revised Statutes of the United States.
2. For purposes of applying this section and section 23B, and notwithstanding subsection (b)(2) of this section or section 23B(d)(1), a financial subsidiary of a bank– A. shall be deemed to be an affiliate of the bank; and
B. shall not be deemed to be a subsidiary of the bank.

3. For purposes of this section and section 23B– A. any purchase of, or investment in, the securities of a financial subsidiary of a bank by an affiliate of the bank shall be considered to be a purchase of or investment in such securities by the bank; and
B. any extension of credit by an affiliate of a bank to a financial subsidiary of the bank shall be considered to be an extension of credit by the bank to the financial subsidiary if the Board determines that such treatment is necessary or appropriate to prevent evasions of this Act and the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act.

Rulemaking and Additional Exemptions

(f)
1. The Board may issue such further regulations and orders, including definitions consistent with this section, as may be necessary to administer and carry out the purposes of this section and to prevent evasions thereof.
2.A. In general. The Board may, at its discretion, by regulation exempt transactions or relationships from the requirements of this section if– i. the Board finds the exemption to be in the public interest and consistent with the purposes of this section, and notifies the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation of such finding; and
ii. before the end of the 60-day period beginning on the date on which the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation receives notice of the finding under clause (i), the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation does not object, in writing, to the finding, based on a determination that the exemption presents an unacceptable risk to the Deposit Insurance Fund.

B. Additional exemptions. i. National banks. The Comptroller of the Currency may, by order, exempt a transaction of a national bank from the requirements of this section if– I. the Board and the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency jointly find the exemption to be in the public interest and consistent with the purposes of this section and notify the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation of such finding; and
II. before the end of the 60-day period beginning on the date on which the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation receives notice of the finding under subclause (I), the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation does not object, in writing, to the finding, based on a determination that the exemption presents an unacceptable risk to the Deposit Insurance Fund.

ii. State banks. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation may, by order, exempt a transaction of a State nonmember bank, and the Board may, by order, exempt a transaction of a State member bank, from the requirements of this section if– I. the Board and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation jointly find that the exemption is in the public interest and consistent with the purposes of this section; and
II. the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation finds that the exemption does not present an unacceptable risk to the Deposit Insurance Fund.

3.A. Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, the Board shall adopt final rules under this section to address as covered transactions credit exposure arising out of derivative transactions between member banks and their affiliates and intraday extensions of credit by member banks to their affiliates.
B. The effective date of any final rule adopted by the Board pursuant to subparagraph (A) shall be delayed for such period as the Board deems necessary or appropriate to permit banks to conform their activities to the requirements of the final rule without undue hardship.

4. Amounts of covered transactions. The Board may issue such regulations or interpretations as the Board determines are necessary or appropriate with respect to the manner in which a netting agreement may be taken into account in determining the amount of a covered transaction between a member bank or a subsidiary and an affiliate, including the extent to which netting agreements between a member bank or a subsidiary and an affiliate may be taken into account in determining whether a covered transaction is fully secured for purposes of subsection(d)(4). An interpretation under this paragraph with respect to a specific member bank, subsidiary, or affiliate shall be issued jointly with the appropriate federal banking agency for such member bank, subsidiary, or affiliate.

[12 USC 371c. As added by act of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 183) and amended by acts of Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 717); June 30, 1954 (68 Stat. 358); Sept. 8, 1959 (73 Stat. 457); July 1, 1966 (80 Stat. 241, 243); Oct. 15, 1982 (96 Stat. 1515); Jan. 12, 1983 (96 Stat. 2509); Nov. 12, 1999 (113 Stat. 1378, 1379, 1380); and July 21, 2010 (124 Stat. 1608, 1611). Section 410 of the Garn-St Germain Depository Institutions Act of 1982, which completely revised this section, provides in paragraph (c) (12 USC 371c note) the following:

(c) Section 23A of the Federal Reserve Act, as amended by this section, shall apply to any transaction entered into after the date of enactment of this Act [October 15, 1982], except for transactions which are the subject of a binding written contract or commitment entered into on or before July 28, 1982, and except that any renewal of a participation in a loan outstanding on July 28, 1982, to a company that becomes an affiliate as a result of the enactment of this Act, or any participation in a loan to such an affiliate emanating from the renewal of a binding written contract or commitment outstanding on July 28, 1982, shall not be subject to the collateral requirements of this Act.]

Section 23B. Restrictions on Transactions with Affiliates

(a)
1. A member bank and its subsidiaries may engage in any of the transactions described in paragraph (2) only– A. on terms and under circumstances, including credit standards, that are substantially the same, or at least as favorable to such bank or its subsidiary, as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with or involving other nonaffiliated companies, or
B. in the absence of comparable transactions, on terms and under circumstances, including credit standards, that in good faith would be offered to, or would apply to, nonaffiliated companies.

2. Paragraph (1) applies to the following: A. Any covered transaction with an affiliate.
B. The sale of securities or other assets to an affiliate, including assets subject to an agreement to repurchase.
C. The payment of money or the furnishing of services to an affiliate under contract, lease, or otherwise.
D. Any transaction in which an affiliate acts as an agent or broker or receives a fee for its services to the bank or to any other person.
E. Any transaction or series of transactions with a third party– i. if an affiliate has a financial interest in the third party, or
ii. if an affiliate is a participant in such transaction or series of transactions.

3. For the purpose of this subsection, any transaction by a member bank or its subsidiary with any person shall be deemed to be a transaction with an affiliate of such bank if any of the proceeds of the transaction are used for the benefit of, or transferred to, such affiliate.

Prohibited Transactions

(b)
1. A member bank or its subsidiary– A. shall not purchase as fiduciary any securities or other assets from any affiliate unless such purchase is permitted– i. under the instrument creating the fiduciary relationship,
ii. by court order, or
iii. by law of the jurisdiction governing the fiduciary relationship; and

B. whether acting as principal or fiduciary, shall not knowingly purchase or otherwise acquire, during the existence of any underwriting or selling syndicate, any security if a principal underwriter of that security is an affiliate of such bank.

2. Subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) shall not apply if the purchase or acquisition of such securities has been approved, before such securities are initially offered for sale to the public, by a majority of the directors of the bank based on a determination that the purchase is a sound investment for the bank irrespective of the fact that an affiliate of the bank is a principal underwriter of the securities.
3. For the purpose of this subsection– A. the term “security” has the meaning given to such term in section 3(a)(10) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934; and
B. the term “principal underwriter” means any underwriter who, in connection with a primary distribution of securities– i. is in privity of contract with the issuer or an affiliated person of the issuer;
ii. acting alone or in concert with one or more other persons, initiates or directs the formation of an underwriting syndicate; or
iii. is allowed a rate of gross commission, spread, or other profit greater than the rate allowed another underwriter participating in the distribution.

Advertising Restriction

(c) A member bank or any subsidiary or affiliate of a member bank shall not publish any advertisement or enter into any agreement stating or suggesting that the bank shall in any way be responsible for the obligations of its affiliates.

Definitions

(d) For the purpose of this section–
1. the term “affiliate” has the meaning given to such term in section 23A (but does not include any company described in section (b)(2) of such section or any bank);
2. the terms “bank”, “subsidiary”, “person”, and “security” (other than security as used in subsection (b)) have the meanings given to such terms in section 23A; and
3. the term “covered transaction” has the meaning given to such term in section 23A (but does not include any transaction which is exempt from such definition under subsection (d) of such section).

Regulations

(e)
1. In general. The Board may prescribe regulations to administer and carry out the purposes of this section, including– A. regulations to further define terms used in this section; and
B. subject to paragraph (2), if the Board finds that an exemption or exclusion is in the public interest and is consistent with the purposes of this section, and notifies the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation of such finding, regulations to– i. exempt transactions or relationships from the requirements of this section; and
ii. exclude any subsidiary of a bank holding company from the definition of affiliate for purposes of this section.

2. Exception. The Board may grant an exemption or exclusion under this subsection only if, during the 60-day period beginning on the date of receipt of notice of the finding from the Board under paragraph (1)(B), the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation does not object, in writing, to such exemption or exclusion, based on a determination that the exemption presents an unacceptable risk to the Deposit Insurance Fund.

[12 USC 371c-1. As added by act of Aug. 10, 1987 (101 Stat. 564) and amended by acts of Nov. 12, 1999 (113 Stat. 1480) and July 21, 2010 (124 Stat. 1610).]

Section 24. Real Estate Loans
(a) Any national banking association may make, arrange, purchase or sell loans or extensions of credit secured by liens on interests in real estate, subject to such terms, conditions, and limitations as may be prescribed by the Comptroller of the Currency by order, rule, or regulation.
(b) Notes representing loans made under this section to finance the construction of residential or farm buildings and having maturities not to exceed nine months shall be eligible for discount as commercial paper within the terms of the second paragraph of section 13 of the Federal Reserve Act if accompanied by a valid and binding agreement to advance the full amount of the loan upon the completion of the building entered into by an individual, partnership, association, or corporation acceptable to the discounting bank.

[12 USC 371. As amended by acts of Aug. 14, 1946 (60 Stat. 1072); May 25, 1948 (62 Stat. 265); Oct. 25, 1949 (63 Stat. 906); April 20, 1950 (64 Stat. 80); Sept. 1, 1951 (65 Stat. 303, 312); Aug. 15, 1953 (67 Stat. 614); July 22, 1954 (68 Stat. 525); Aug. 17, 1954 (68 Stat. 735); Aug. 11, 1955 (69 Stat. 633, 634); July 18, 1958 (72 Stat. 396); Sept. 9, 1959 (73 Stat. 489); June 30, 1961 (75 Stat. 188, 191); Sept. 28, 1962 (76 Stat. 662, 663); June 30, 1964 (78 Stat. 233); Sept. 2, 1964 (78 Stat. 807); Aug. 10, 1965 (79 Stat. 465, 509); Nov. 3, 1966 (80 Stat. 1277); May 25, 1967 (81 Stat. 28); Aug. 1, 1968 (82 Stat. 518, 609); July 24, 1970 (84 Stat. 462); Dec. 31, 1970 (84 Stat. 1803); Aug. 22, 1974 (88 Stat. 716, 725); and Oct. 15, 1982 (96 Stat. 1510).]

Section 24A. Investment in Bank Premises or Stock of Corporation Holding Premises
(a) Conditions of investment. No national bank or State member bank shall invest in bank premises, or in the stock, bonds, debentures, or other such obligations of any corporation holding the premises of such bank, or make loans to or upon the security of any such corporation– 1.unless the bank receives the prior approval of the Comptroller of the Currency (with respect to a national bank) or the Board (with respect to a State member bank);
2.unless the aggregate of all such investments and loans, together with the amount of any indebtedness incurred by any such corporation that is an affiliate of the bank, is less than or equal to the amount of the capital stock of such bank; or
3.unless– A.the aggregate of all such investments and loans, together with the amount of any indebtedness incurred by any such corporation that is an affiliate of the bank, is less than or equal to 150 percent of the capital and surplus of the bank; and
B.the bank– i.has a CAMEL composite rating of 1 or 2 under the Uniform Financial Institutions Rating System (or an equivalent rating under a comparable rating system) as of the most recent examination of such bank;
ii.is well capitalized and will continue to be well capitalized after the investment or loan; and
iii.provides notification to the Comptroller of the Currency (with respect to a national bank) or to the Board (with respect to a State member bank) not later than 30 days after making the investment or loan.

(b) Definitions. For purposes of this section– 1.the term “affiliate” has the same meaning as in section 2 of the Banking Act of 1933; andthe term “well capitalized” has the same meaning as in section 38(b) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act.

[12 USC 371d. As added by act of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 183); amended by acts of June 30, 1954 (68 Stat. 358) and Sept. 30, 1996 (110 Stat. 3009-405).]

Section 25. Foreign Branches

1. Capital and Surplus Required to Exercise Powers
Any national banking association possessing a capital and surplus of $1,000,000 or more may file application with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System for permission to exercise, upon such conditions and under such regulations as may be prescribed by the said board, the following powers:
[12 USC 601. As amended by act of Sept. 7, 1916 (39 Stat. 755), which completely revised this section, and by act of July 1, 1966 (80 Stat. 241).]

2. Establishment of Foreign Branches
First. To establish branches in foreign countries or dependencies or insular possessions of the United States for the furtherance of the foreign commerce of the United States, and to act if required to do so as fiscal agents of the United States.
[12 USC 601. As amended by act of Sept. 7, 1916 (39 Stat. 755), which completely revised this section.]

3. Purchase of Stock in Corporations Engaged in Foreign Banking
Second. To invest an amount not exceeding in the aggregate ten per centum of its paid-in capital stock and surplus in the stock of one or more banks or corporations chartered or incorporated under the laws of the United States or of any State thereof, and principally engaged in international or foreign banking, or banking in a dependency or insular possession of the United States either directly or through the agency, ownership, or control of local institutions in foreign countries, or in such dependencies or insular possessions.
[12 USC 601. As added by act of Sept. 7, 1916 (39 Stat. 755), which completely revised this section.]

4. Acquisition of Ownership of Foreign Banks
Third. To acquire and hold, directly or indirectly, stock or other evidences of ownership in one or more banks organized under the law of a foreign country or a dependency or insular possession of the United States and not engaged, directly or indirectly, in any activity in the United States except as, in the judgment of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, shall be incidental to the international or foreign business of such foreign bank; and, notwithstanding the provisions of section 23A of this Act, to make loans or extensions of credit to or for the account of such bank in the manner and within the limits prescribed by the Board by general or specific regulation or ruling.
[12 USC 601. As added by act of July 1, 1966 (80 Stat. 241).]

5. Right of National Banks to Invest in Foreign Banking Corporations until January 1, 1921
Until January 1, 1921, any national banking association, without regard to the amount of its capital and surplus, may file application with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System for permission, upon such conditions and under such regulations as may be prescribed by said board, to invest an amount not exceeding in the aggregate 5 per centum of its paid-in capital and surplus in the stock of one or more corporations chartered or incorporated under the laws of the United States or of any State thereof and, regardless of its location, principally engaged in such phases of international or foreign financial operations as may be necessary to facilitate the export of goods, wares, or merchandise from the United States or any of its dependencies or insular possessions to any foreign country: Provided, however, That in no event shall the total investments authorized by this section by any one national bank exceed 10 per centum of its capital and surplus.
[12 USC 601. As added by act of Sept. 17, 1919 (41 Stat. 285). This paragraph, by its terms, is now obsolete.]

6. Application for Permission to Exercise Powers
Such application shall specify the name and capital of the banking association filing it, the powers applied for, and the place or places where the banking or financial operations proposed are to be carried on. The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall have power to approve or to reject such application in whole or in part if for any reason the granting of such application is deemed inexpedient, and shall also have power from time to time to increase or decrease the number of places where such banking operations may be carried on.
[12 USC 601. As amended by act of Sept. 7, 1916 (39 Stat. 755), which completely revised this section; and by act of Sept. 17, 1919 (41 Stat. 286).]

7. Examinations and Reports of Condition
Every national banking association operating foreign branches shall be required to furnish information concerning the conditions of such branches to the Comptroller of the Currency upon demand, and every member bank investing in the capital stock of banks or corporations described above shall be required to furnish information concerning the condition of such banks or corporations to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System upon demand, and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may order special examinations of the said branches, banks, or corporations at such time or times as it may deem best.
[12 USC 602. As amended by act of Sept. 7, 1916 (39 Stat. 755), which completely revised this section; and by act of Sept. 17, 1919 (41 Stat. 286).]

8. Agreement to Restrict Operations
Before any national bank shall be permitted to purchase stock in any such corporation the said corporation shall enter into an agreement or undertaking with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System to restrict its operations or conduct its business in such manner or under such limitations and restrictions as the said board may prescribe for the place or places wherein such business is to be conducted. If at any time the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall ascertain that the regulations prescribed by it are not being complied with, said board is hereby authorized and empowered to institute an investigation of the matter and to send for persons and papers, subpoena witnesses, and administer oaths in order to satisfy itself as to the actual nature of the transactions referred to. Should such investigation result in establishing the failure of the corporation in question, or of the national bank or banks which may be stockholders therein, to comply with the regulations laid down by the said Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, such national banks may be required to dispose of stock holdings in the said corporation upon reasonable notice.
[12 USC 603. Added by act of Sept. 7, 1916 (39 Stat. 755), which completely revised this section.]

9. Accounts of Foreign Branches
Every national banking association operating foreign branches shall conduct the accounts of each foreign branch independently of the accounts of other foreign branches established by it and of its home office, and shall at the end of each fiscal period transfer to its general ledger the profit or loss accrued at each branch as a separate item.
[12 USC 604a. As added by act of Aug. 15, 1962 (76 Stat. 388).]

Section 25A. Banking Corporations Authorized to Do Foreign Banking Business*

1. Organization
Corporations to be organized for the purpose of engaging in international or foreign banking or other international or foreign financial operations, or in banking or other financial operations in a dependency or insular possession of the United States, either directly or through the agency, ownership, or control of local institutions in foreign countries, or in such dependencies or insular possessions as provided by this section, and to act when required by the Secretary of the Treasury as fiscal agents of the United States, may be formed by any number of natural persons, not less in any case than five: Provided, That nothing in this section shall be construed to deny the right of the Secretary of the Treasury to use any corporation organized under this section as depositaries in Panama and the Panama Canal Zone, or in the Philippine Islands and other insular possessions and dependencies of the United States.

2. Purpose
The congress hereby declares that it is the purpose of this section to provide for the establishment of international banking and financial corporations operating under Federal supervision with powers sufficiently broad to enable them to compete effectively with similar foreign-owned institutions in the United States and abroad; to afford to the United States exporter and importer in particular, and to United States commerce, industry, and agriculture in general, at all times a means of financing international trade, especially United States exports; to foster the participation by regional and smaller banks throughout the United States in the provision of international banking and financing services to all segments of United States agriculture, commerce, and industry, and, in particular small business and farming concerns; to stimulate competition in the provision of international banking and financing services, throughout the United States; and, in conjunction with each of the preceding purposes, to facilitate and stimulate the export of United States goods, wares, merchandise, commodities, and services to achieve a sound United States international trade position. The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall issue rules and regulations under this section consistent with and in furtherance of the purposes described in the preceding sentence, and, in accordance therewith, shall review and revise any such rules and regulations at least once every five years, the first such period commencing with the effective date of rules and regulations issued pursuant to section 3(a) of the International Banking Act of 1978, in order to ensure that such purposes are being served in light of prevailing economic conditions and banking practices.
[12 USC 611. As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 378); and amended by act of Feb. 27, 1921 (41 Stat. 1145) and Sept. 17, 1978 (92 Stat. 609). Presidential Proclamation No. 2695 of July 4, 1946 (60 Stat. 1352; 12 USC 1394 note) recognizes the independence of the Philippine Islands. Therefore, the words "in the Philippine Islands and" have been omitted from the U.S. Code.]

3. Articles of Association
Such persons shall enter into articles of association which shall specify in general terms the objects for which the association is formed and may contain any other provisions not inconsistent with law which the association may see fit to adopt for the regulation of its business and the conduct of its affairs.
[12 USC 612. As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 378).]

4. Execution of Articles of Association; Contents of Organization Certificate
Such articles of association shall be signed by all of the persons intending to participate in the organization of the corporation and, thereafter, shall be forwarded to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and shall be filed and preserved in its office. The persons signing the said articles of association shall, under their hands, make an organization certificate which shall specifically state:
First. The name assumed by such corporation, which shall be subject to the approval of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.

Second. The place or places where its operations are to be carried on.

Third. The place in the United States where its home office is to be located.

Fourth. The amount of its capital stock and the number of shares into which the same shall be divided.

Fifth. The names and places of business or residence of the persons executing the certificate and the number of shares to which each has subscribed.

Sixth. The fact that the certificate is made to enable the persons subscribing the same, and all other persons, firms, companies, and corporations, who or which may thereafter subscribe to or purchase shares of the capital stock of such corporation, to avail themselves of the advantages of this section.

[12 USC 613. As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 379).]

5. Filing Organization Certificate; Issuance of Permit
The persons signing the organization certificate shall duly acknowledge the execution thereof before a judge of some court of record or notary public, who shall certify thereto under the seal of such court or notary, and thereafter the certificate shall be forwarded to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System to be filed and preserved in its office. Upon duly making and filing articles of association and an organization certificate, and after the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System has approved the same and issued a permit to begin business, the association shall become and be a body corporate, and as such and in the name designated therein shall have power to adopt and use a corporate seal, which may be changed at the pleasure of its board of directors; to have succession for a period of twenty years unless sooner dissolved by the act of the shareholders owning two-thirds of the stock or by an Act of Congress or unless its franchises become forfeited by some violation of law; to make contracts; to sue and be sued, complain, and defend in any court of law or equity; to elect or appoint directors; and, by its board of directors, to appoint such officers and employees as may be deemed proper, define their authority and duties, require bonds of them, and fix the penalty thereof, dismiss such officers or employees, or any thereof, at pleasure and appoint others to fill their places; to prescribe, by its board of directors, by-laws not inconsistent with law or with the regulations of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System regulating the manner in which its stock shall be transferred, its directors elected or appointed, its officers and employees appointed, its property transferred, and the privileges granted to it by law exercised and enjoyed.
[12 USC 614. As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 379) and Sept. 17, 1978 (92 Stat. 609).]

6. Powers; Regulations of Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
Each corporation so organized shall have power, under such rules and regulations as the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may prescribe:
[12 USC 615. As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 379) and amended by act of Sept. 17, 1978 (92 Stat. 609).]

Banking Powers
(a) To purchase, sell, discount, and negotiate, with or without its indorsement or guaranty, notes, drafts, checks, bills of exchange, acceptances, including bankers’ acceptances, cable transfers, and other evidences of indebtedness; to purchase and sell, with or without its indorsement or guaranty, securities, including the obligations of the United States or of any State thereof but not including shares of stock in any corporation except as herein provided; to accept bills or drafts drawn upon it subject to such limitations and restrictions as the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may impose; to issue letters of credit; to purchase and sell coin, bullion, and exchange; to borrow and to lend money; to issue debentures, bonds, and promissory notes under such general conditions as to security and such limitations as the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may prescribe; to receive deposits outside of the United States and to receive only such deposits within the United States as may be incidental to or for the purpose of carrying out transactions in foreign countries or dependencies or insular possessions of the United States; and generally to exercise such powers as are incidental to the powers conferred by this Act or as may be usual, in the determination of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, in connection with the transaction of the business of banking or other financial operations in the countries, colonies, dependencies, or possessions in which it shall transact business and not inconsistent with the powers specifically granted herein. Nothing contained in this section shall be construed to prohibit the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, under its power to prescribe rules and regulations, from limiting the aggregate amount of liabilities of any or all classes incurred by the corporation and outstanding at any one time. Whenever a corporation organized under this section receives deposits in the United States authorized by this section it shall carry reserves in such amounts as the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may prescribe for member banks of the Federal Reserve System.
[12 USC 615(a). As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 379); and amended by act of Sept. 17, 1978 (92 Stat. 609).]

Branches
(b) To establish and maintain for the transaction of its business branches or agencies in foreign countries, their dependencies or colonies, and in the dependencies or insular possessions of the United States, at such places as may be approved by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and under such rules and regulations as it may prescribe, including countries or dependencies not specified in the original organization certificate.
[12 USC 615(b). As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 379).]

Ownership of Stock in Other Corporations
(c) With the consent of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System to purchase and hold stock or other certificates of ownership in any other corporation organized under the provisions of this section, or under the laws of any foreign country or a colony or dependency thereof, or under the laws of any State, dependency, or insular possession of the United States but not engaged in the general business of buying or selling goods, wares, merchandise or commodities in the United States, and not transacting any business in the United States except such as in the judgment of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may be incidental to its international or foreign business: Provided, however, That, except with the approval of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, no corporation organized hereunder shall invest in any one corporation an amount in excess of 10 per centum of its own capital and surplus, except in a corporation engaged in the business of banking, when 15 per centum of its capital and surplus may be so invested: Provided further, That no corporation organized hereunder shall purchase, own, or hold stock or certificates of ownership in any other corporation organized hereunder or under the laws of any State which is in substantial competition therewith, or which holds stock or certificates of ownership in corporations which are in substantial competition with the purchasing corporation.
[12 USC 615(c). As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 380).]

7. Purchase of Stock to Prevent Loss on Debt Previously Contracted
Nothing contained herein shall prevent corporations organized hereunder from purchasing and holding stock in any corporation where such purchase shall be necessary to prevent a loss upon a debt previously contracted in good faith; and stock so purchased or acquired in corporations organized under this section shall within six months from such purchase be sold or disposed of at public or private sale unless the time to so dispose of same is extended by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System.
[12 USC 615(c). As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 380).]

8. Restrictions on Business in United States
No corporation organized under this section shall carry on any part of its business in the United States except such as, in the judgment of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, shall be incidental to its international or foreign business: And provided further, That except such as is incidental and preliminary to its organization no such corporation shall exercise any of the powers conferred by this section until it has been duly authorized by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System to commence business as a corporation organized under the provisions of this section.
[12 USC 616. As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 381).]

9. Corporation Trading in Commodities or Attempting to Control Prices
No corporation organized under this section shall engage in commerce or trade in commodities except as specifically provided in this section, nor shall it either directly or indirectly control or fix or attempt to control or fix the price of an such commodities. The charter of any corporation violating this provision shall be subject to forfeiture in the manner hereinafter provided in this section. It shall be unlawful for any director, officer, agent, or employee of any such corporation to use or to conspire to use the credit; the funds, or the power of the corporation to fix or control the price of any such commodities, and any such person violating this provision shall be liable to a fine of not less than $1,000 and not exceeding $5,000 or imprisonment not less than one year and not exceeding five years, or both, in the discretion of the court.
[12 USC 617. As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 81).]

10. Capital Stock
No corporation shall be organized under the provisions of this section with a capital stock of less than $2,000,000, one-quarter of which must be paid in before the corporation may be authorized to begin business, and the remainder of the capital stock of such corporation shall be paid in installments of at least 10 per centum on the whole amount to which the corporation shall be limited as frequently as one installment at the end of each succeeding two months from the time of the commencement of its business operations until the whole of the capital stock shall be paid in: Provided, however, That whenever $2,000,000 of the capital stock of any corporation is paid in the remainder of the corporation’s capital stock or any unpaid part of such remainder may, with the consent of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and subject to such regulations and conditions as it may prescribe, be paid in upon call from the board of directors; such unpaid subscriptions, however, to be included in the maximum of 10 per centum of the national bank’s capital and surplus which a national bank is permitted under the provisions of this Act to hold in stock of corporations engaged in business of the kind described in this section and in section 25 of the Federal Reserve Act as amended. The capital stock of any such corporation may be increased at any time, with the approval of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, by a vote of two-thirds of its shareholders or by unanimous consent in writing of the shareholders without a meeting and without a formal vote, but any such increase of capital shall be fully paid in within ninety days after such approval; and may be reduced in like manner, provided that in no event shall it be less than $2,000,000. No corporation, except as herein provided, shall during the time it shall continue its operations, withdraw or permit to be withdrawn, either in the form of dividends or otherwise, any portion of its capital. Any national bank may invest in the stock of any corporation organized under this section. The aggregate amount of stock held by any national bank in all corporations engaged in business of the kind described in this section or section 25 shall not exceed an amount equal to 10 percent of the capital and surplus of such bank unless the Board determines that the investment of an additional amount by the bank would not be unsafe or unsound and, in any case, shall not exceed an amount equal to 20 percent of the capital and surplus of such bank.
[12 USC 618. As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 381); and amended by acts of June 14, 1921 (42 Stat. 28) and Sept. 30, 1996 (110 Stat. 3009-426).]

11. Citizenship of Stockholders
Except as otherwise provided in this section, a majority of the shares of the capital stock of any such corporation shall at all times be held and owned by citizens of the United States, by corporations the controlling interest in which is owned by citizens of the United States, chartered under the laws of the United States or of a State of the United States, or by firms or companies, the controlling interest in which is owned by citizens of the United States. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this section, one or more foreign banks, institutions organized under the laws of foreign countries which own or control foreign banks, or banks organized under the laws of the United States, the States of the United States, or the District of Columbia, the controlling interests in which are owned by any such foreign banks or institutions, may, with the prior approval of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and upon such terms and conditions and subject to such rules and regulations as the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System may prescribe, own and hold 50 per centum or more of the shares of the capital stock of any corporation organized under this section, and any such corporation shall be subject to the same provisions of law as any other corporation organized under this section, and the terms “controls” and “controlling interest” shall be construed consistently with the definition of “control” in section 2 of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956. For the purposes of the preceding sentence of this paragraph the term “foreign bank” shall have the meaning assigned to it in the International Banking Act of 1978. Any company, other than a bank as defined in section 2 of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, that after March 5, 1987, directly or indirectly acquires control of a corporation organized or operating under the provisions of this section or section 25 shall be subject to the provisions of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956 in the same manner and to the same extent that bank holding companies are subject thereto, except that such company shall not by reason of this paragraph be deemed a bank holding company for the purpose of section 3 of the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956.
[12 USC 619. As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 378) and amended by acts of Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 717); Sept. 17, 1978 (92 Stat. 609); and Aug. 10, 1987 (101 Stat. 566).]

12. Members of Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System as Directors, Officers or Stockholders
No member of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System shall be an officer or director of any corporation organized under the provisions of this section, or of any corporation engaged in similar business organized under the laws of any State, nor hold stock in any such corporation, and before entering upon his duties as a member of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System he shall certify under oath to the Secretary of the Treasury that he has complied with this requirement.
[12 USC 620. As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 382).]

13. Shareholders’ Liability; Corporation Not to Become Member of Federal Reserve Bank
Shareholders in any corporation organized under the provision of this section shall be liable for the amount of their unpaid stock subscriptions. No such corporation shall become a member of any Federal reserve bank.
[12 USC 621. As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 382).]

14. Forfeiture of Charter for Violation of Law
Should any corporation organized hereunder violate or fail to comply with any of the provisions of this section, all of its rights, privileges, and franchises derived herefrom may thereby be forfeited. Before any such corporation shall be declared dissolved, or its rights, privileges, and franchises forfeited, any noncompliance with, or violation of such laws shall, however, be determined and adjudged by a court of the United States of competent jurisdiction, in a suit brought for that purpose in the district or territory in which the home office of such corporation is located, which suit shall be brought by the United States at the insistence of the Board of Governors for the Federal Reserve System or the Attorney General. Upon adjudication of such noncompliance or violation, each director and officer who participated in, or assented to, the illegal act or acts, shall be liable in his personal or individual capacity for all damages which the said corporation shall have sustained in consequence thereof. No dissolution shall take away or impair any remedy against the corporation, its stockholders, or officers for any liability or penalty previously incurred.
[12 USC 622. As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 382).]

15. Voluntary Liquidation
Any such corporation may go into voluntary liquidation and be closed by a vote of its shareholders owning two-thirds of its stock.
[12 USC 623. As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 382.)]

16. Appointment of Receiver or Conservator
A.In general. The Board may appoint a conservator or receiver for a corporation organized under the provisions of this section to the same extent and in the same manner as the Comptroller of the Currency may appoint a conservator or receiver for a national bank, and the conservator or receiver for such corporation shall exercise the same powers, functions, and duties, subject to the same limitations, as a conservator or receiver for a national bank.
B.Equivalent authority. The Board shall have the same authority with respect to any conservator or receiver appointed for a corporation organized under the provisions of this section under this paragraph and any such corporation as the Comptroller of the Currency has with respect to a conservator or receiver of a national bank and the national bank for which a conservator or receiver has been appointed.
C.Title 11 petitions. The Board may direct the conservator or receiver of a corporation organized under the provisions of this section to file a petition pursuant to title 11, United States Code, in which case, title 11, United States Code, shall apply to the corporation in lieu of otherwise applicable Federal or State insolvency law.

[12 USC 624. As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 382) and amended by act of Dec. 12, 2000 (114 Stat. 2763A-396).]

17. Stockholders’ Meetings; Records; Reports; Examinations
Every corporation organized under the provisions of this section shall hold a meeting of its stockholders annually upon a date fixed in its bylaws, such meeting to be held at its home office in the United States. Every such corporation shall keep at its home office books containing the names of all stockholders thereof, and the names and addresses of the members of its board of directors, together with copies of all reports made by it to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. Every such corporation shall make reports to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System at such times and in such form as it may require; and shall be subject to examination once a year and at such other times as may be deemed necessary by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System by examiners appointed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, the cost of such examinations, including the compensation of the examiners, to be fixed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System and to be paid by the corporation examined.
[12 USC 625. As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 382).]

18. Dividends and Surplus Fund
The directors of any corporation organized under the provisions of this section may, semiannually, declare a dividend of so much of the net profits of the corporation as they shall judge expedient; but each corporation shall, before the declaration of a dividend, carry one-tenth of its net profits of the preceding half year to its surplus fund until the same shall amount to 20 per centum of its capital stock.
[12 USC 626. As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 383).]

19. Taxation
Any corporation organized under the provisions of this section shall be subject to tax by the State within which its home office is located in the same manner and to the same extent as other corporations organized under the laws of that State which are transacting a similar character of business. The shares of stock in such corporation shall also be subject to tax as the personal property of the owners or holders thereof in the same manner and to the same extent as the shares of stock in similar State corporations.
[12 USC 627. As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 383).]

20. Extension of Corporate Existence
Any corporation organized under the provisions of this section may at any time within the two years next previous to the date of the expiration of its corporate existence, by a vote of the shareholders owning two-thirds of its stock, apply to the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System for its approval to extend the period of its corporate existence for a term of not more than twenty years, and upon certified approval of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System such corporation shall have its corporate existence for such extended period unless sooner dissolved by the act of the shareholders owning two-thirds of its stock, or by an Act of Congress or unless its franchise becomes forfeited by some violation of law.
[12 USC 628. As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 383).]

21. Conversion of State Corporation into Federal Corporation
Any bank or banking institution, principally engaged in foreign business, incorporated by special law of any State or of the United States or organized under the general laws of any State or of the United States and having an unimpaired capital sufficient to entitle it to become a corporation under the provisions of this section may, by the vote of the shareholders owning not less than two-thirds of the capital stock of such bank or banking association, with the approval of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, be converted into a Federal corporation of the kind authorized by this section with any name approved by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System: Provided, however, That said conversion shall not be in contravention of the State law. In such case the articles of association and organization certificate may be executed by a majority of the directors of the bank or banking institution, and the certificate shall declare that the owners of at least two thirds of the capital stock have authorized the directors to make such certificate and to change or convert the bank or banking institution into a Federal corporation. A majority of the directors, after executing the articles of association and the organization certificate, shall have power to execute all other papers and to do whatever may be required to make its organization perfect and complete as a Federal corporation. The shares of any such corporation may continue to be for the same amount each as they were before the conversion, and the directors may continue to be directors of the corporation until others are elected or appointed in accordance with the provisions of this section. When the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System has given to such corporation a certificate that the provisions of this section have been complied with, such corporation and all its stockholders, officers, and employees, shall have the same powers and privileges, and shall be subject to the same duties, liabilities, and regulations, in all respects, as shall have been prescribed by this section for corporations originally organized hereunder.
[12 USC 629. As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 383).]

22. Criminal Offenses of Directors, Officers, and Employees
Every officer, director, clerk, employee, or agent of any corporation organized under this section who embezzles, abstracts, or willfully misapplies any of the moneys, funds, credits, securities, evidences of indebtedness or assets of any character of such corporation; or who, without authority from the directors, issues or puts forth any certificate of deposit, draws any order or bill of exchange, makes any acceptance, assigns any note, bond, debenture, draft, bill of exchange, mortgage, judgment, or decree; or who makes any false entry in any book, report, or statement of such corporation with intent, in either case, to injure or defraud such corporation or any other company, body politic or corporate, or any individual person, or to deceive any officer of such corporation, the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, or any agent or examiner appointed to examine the affairs of any such corporation; and every receiver of any such corporation and every clerk or employee of such receiver who shall embezzle, abstract, or willfully misapply or wrongfully convert to his own use any moneys, funds, credits, or assets of any character which may come into his possession or under his control in the execution of his trust or the performance of the duties of his employment; and every such receiver or clerk or employee of such receiver who shall, with intent to injure or defraud any person, body politic or corporate, or to deceive or mislead the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, or any agent or examiner appointed to examine the affairs of such receiver, shall make any false entry in any book, report, or record of any matter connected with the duties of such receiver; and every person who with like intent aids or abets any officer, director, clerk, employee, or agent of any corporation organized under this section, or receiver or clerk or employee of such receiver as aforesaid in any violation of this section, shall upon conviction thereof be imprisoned for not less than two years nor more than ten years, and may also be fined not more than $5,000, in the discretion of the court.
[12 USC 630. As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 384).]

23. Representation that United States Is Liable for Obligations
Whoever being connected in any capacity with any corporation organized under this section represents in any way that the United States is liable for the payment of any bond or other obligation, or the interest thereon, issued or incurred by any corporation organized hereunder, or that the United States incurs any liability in respect of any act or omission of the corporation, shall be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 and by imprisonment for not more than five years.
[12 USC 631. As added by act of Dec. 24, 1919 (41 Stat. 384).]

* Previously section 25(a), this section was redesignated by act of Dec. 19, 1991 (105 Stat. 2281).

Section 25B. Jurisdiction of Suits *

1. Suits Arising Out of Foreign Banking Business
Notwithstanding any other provision of law all suits of a civil nature at common law or in equity to which any corporation organized under the laws of the United States shall be a party, arising out of transactions involving international or foreign banking, or banking in a dependency or insular possession of the United States, or out of other international or foreign financial operations, either directly or through the agency, ownership, or control of branches or local institutions in dependencies or insular possessions of the United States or in foreign countries, shall be deemed to arise under the laws of the United States, and the district courts of the United States shall have original jurisdiction of all such suits; and any defendant in any such suit may, at any time before the trial thereof, remove such suits from a State court into the district court of the United States for the proper district by following the procedure for the removal of causes otherwise provided by law. Such removal shall not cause undue delay in the trial of such case and a case so removed shall have a place on the calendar of the United States court to which it is removed relative to that which it held on the State court from which it was removed.
[12 USC 632. As added by act of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 184).]

1. Suits Arising Out of Foreign Banking Business
Notwithstanding any other provision of law all suits of a civil nature at common law or in equity to which any corporation organized under the laws of the United States shall be a party, arising out of transactions involving international or foreign banking, or banking in a dependency or insular possession of the United States, or out of other international or foreign financial operations, either directly or through the agency, ownership, or control of branches or local institutions in dependencies or insular possessions of the United States or in foreign countries, shall be deemed to arise under the laws of the United States, and the district courts of the United States shall have original jurisdiction of all such suits; and any defendant in any such suit may, at any time before the trial thereof, remove such suits from a State court into the district court of the United States for the proper district by following the procedure for the removal of causes otherwise provided by law. Such removal shall not cause undue delay in the trial of such case and a case so removed shall have a place on the calendar of the United States court to which it is removed relative to that which it held on the State court from which it was removed.
[12 USC 632. As added by act of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 184).]

2. Suits Involving Federal Reserve Banks
Notwithstanding any other provision of law, all suits of a civil nature at common law or in equity to which any Federal Reserve bank shall be a party shall be deemed to arise under the laws of the United States, and the district courts of the United States shall have original jurisdiction of all such suits; and any Federal Reserve bank which is a defendant in any such suit may, at any time before the trial thereof, remove such suit from a State court into the district court of the United States for the proper district by following the procedure for the removal of causes otherwise provided by law. No attachment or execution shall be issued against any Federal Reserve bank or its property before final judgment in any suit, action, or proceeding in any State, county, municipal, or United States court.
[12 USC 632. As added by act of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 184).]

3. Federal Reserve Banks Receiving Property of Foreign States and Central Banks
Whenever (1) any Federal Reserve bank has received any property from or for the account of a foreign state which is recognized by the Government of the United States, or from or for the account of a central bank of any such foreign state, and holds such property in the name of such foreign state or such central bank; (2) a representative of such foreign state who is recognized by the Secretary of State as being the accredited representative of such foreign state to the Government of the United States has certified to the Secretary of State the name of a person as having authority to receive, control, or dispose of such property; and (3) the authority of such person to act with respect to such property is accepted and recognized by the Secretary of State, and so certified by the Secretary of State to the Federal Reserve bank, the payment, transfer, delivery, or other disposal of such property by such Federal Reserve bank to or upon the order of such person shall be conclusively presumed to be lawful and shall constitute a complete discharge and release of any liability of the Federal Reserve bank for or with respect to such property.
[12 USC 632. As added by act of April 7, 1941 (55 Stat. 131).]

4. Insured Banks Receiving Property of Foreign States and Central Banks
Whenever (1) any insured bank has received any property from or for the account of a foreign state which is recognized by the Government of the United States, or from or for the account of a central bank of any such foreign state, and holds such property in the name of such foreign state or such central bank; (2) a representative of such foreign state who is recognized by the Secretary of State as being the accredited representative of such foreign state to the Government of the United States has certified to the Secretary of State the name of a person as having authority to receive, control, or dispose of such property; and (3) the authority of such person to act with respect to such property is accepted and recognized by the Secretary of State, and so certified by the Secretary of State to such insured bank, the payment, transfer, delivery, or other disposal of such property by such bank to or upon the order of such person shall be conclusively presumed to be lawful and shall constitute a complete discharge and release of any liability of such bank for or with respect to such property. Any suit or other legal proceeding against any insured bank or any officer, director, or employee thereof, arising out of the receipt possession, or disposition of any such property shall be deemed to arise under the laws of the United States and the district courts of the United States shall have exclusive jurisdiction thereof, regardless of the amount involved; and any such bank or any officer, director, or employee thereof which is a defendant in any such suit may, at any time before trial thereof, remove such suit from a State court into the district court of the United States for the proper district by following the procedure for the removal of causes otherwise provided by law.
[12 USC 632. As added by act of April 7, 1941 (55 Stat. 132).]

5. Licenses Relating to Property of Foreign States and Central Banks
Nothing in this section shall be deemed to repeal or to modify in any manner any of the provisions of the Gold Reserve Act of 1934 (ch. 6, 48 Stat. 337), as amended, the Silver Purchase Act of 1934 (ch. 674, 48 Stat. 1178), as amended, or subdivision (b) of section 5 of the Act of October 6, 1917 (40 Stat. 411), as amended, or any actions, regulations, rules, orders, or proclamations taken, promulgated, made, or issued pursuant to any of such statutes. In any case in which a license to act with respect to any property referred to in this section is required under any of said statutes, regulations, rules, orders, or proclamations, notification to the Secretary of State by the proper Government officer or agency of the issuance of an appropriate license or that appropriate licenses will be issued on application shall be a prerequisite to any action by the Secretary of State pursuant to this section, and the action of the Secretary of State shall relate only to such property as is included in such notification. Each such notification shall include the terms and conditions of such license or licenses and a description of the property to which they relate.
[12 USC 632. As added by act of April 7, 1941 (55 Stat. 132).]

6. Definitions
For the purposes of this section, (1) the term “property” includes gold, silver, currency, credits, deposits, securities, choses in action, and any other form of property, the proceeds thereof, and any right, title, or interest therein: (2) the term “foreign state” includes any foreign government or any department, district, province, county, possession, or other similar governmental organization or subdivision of a foreign government, and any agency or instrumentality of any such foreign government or of any such organization or subdivision; (3) the term “central bank” includes any foreign bank or banker authorized to perform any one or more of the functions of a central bank; (4) the term “person” includes any individual, or any corporation, partnership, association, or other similar organization; and (5) the term “insured bank” shall have the meaning given to it in section 12B of this Act.
[12 USC 632. As added by act of April 7, 1941 (55 Stat. 132). Section 12B was withdrawn and enacted as a separate act by act of Sept. 21, 1950 (64 Stat. 873); for definition of "insured bank" under that act, see 12 USC 1813(h).]

* Previously section 25(b), this section was redesignated by act of Dec. 19, 1991 (105 Stat. 2281).

Section 25C. Potential Liability on Foreign Accounts
(a) Exceptions from repayment requirement. A member bank shall not be required to repay any deposit made at a foreign branch of the bank if the branch cannot repay the deposit due to– 1.an act of war, insurrection, or civil strife; or
2.an action by a foreign government or instrumentality (whether de jure or de facto) in the country in which the branch is located;
unless the member bank has expressly agreed in writing to repay the deposit under those circumstances.
(b) Regulations. The Board and the Comptroller of the Currency may jointly prescribe such regulations as they deem necessary to implement this section.

[12 USC 633. As added by act of Sept. 23, 1994 (108 Stat. 2229). Section 326(c) of the Riegle Community Development and Regulatory Improvement Act of 1994 (12 USC 633 note) provides as follows:

(c) Section 25C of the Federal Reserve Act (as added by subsection (a)) shall not be applied retroactively and shall not be construed to affect or apply to any claim or cause of action addressed by that section arising from events or circumstances that occurred before the date of enactment of this Act.]

Section 26

[Section 26 authorized the secretary of the Treasury to maintain parity of all forms of money and to strengthen the gold reserve by borrowing gold on security of United States bonds or by issuing gold notes for one year. The authority to issue the bonds was repealed by section 10 of the act of March 18, 1968 (82 Stat. 51); therefore, in the recodification of title 31 (act of Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 877), section 26 of the Federal Reserve Act, which had been partly incorporated in 31 USC 409, was deleted as obsolete.]

Section 27. Tax on National Bank Notes

1. National Currency Associations; Amendments to National Bank Act
The provisions of the Act of May thirtieth, nineteen hundred and eight, authorizing national currency associations, the issue of additional national-bank circulation, and creating a National Monetary Commission, which expires by limitation under the terms of such Act on the thirtieth day of June, nineteen hundred and fourteen, are hereby extended to June thirtieth, nineteen hundred and fifteen, and sections fifty-one hundred and fifty-three, fifty-one hundred and seventy-two, fifty-one hundred and ninety-one, and fifty-two hundred and fourteen of the Revised Statutes of the United States, which were amended by the Act of May thirtieth, nineteen hundred and eight, are hereby reenacted to read as such sections read prior to May thirtieth, nineteen hundred and eight, subject to such amendments or modifications as are prescribed in this Act: Provided, however, That section nine of the Act first referred to in this section is hereby amended so as to change the tax rates fixed in said Act by making the portion applicable thereto read as follows:
[Omitted from U.S. Code. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended. Sections 5153, 5172, 5191, and 5214 of the Revised Statutes, referred to in this paragraph, are incorporated in 12 USC 90, 104, 141-143, and 541, respectively.]

2. Tax on National Bank Notes Not Secured by United States Bonds
National banking associations having circulating notes secured otherwise than by bonds of the United States, shall pay for the first three months a tax at the rate of three per centum per annum upon the average amount of such of their notes in circulation as are based upon the deposit of such securities, and afterwards an additional tax rate of one-half of 1 per centum per annum for each month until a tax of 6 per centum per annum is reached, and thereafter such tax of 6 per centum per annum upon the average amount of such notes: Provided further, That whenever in his judgment he may deem it desirable, the Secretary of the Treasury shall have power to suspend the limitations imposed by section one and section three of the Act referred to in this section, which prescribe that such additional circulation secured otherwise than by bonds of the United States shall be issued only to National banks having circulating notes outstanding secured by the deposit of bonds of the United States to an amount not less than 40 per centum of the capital stock of such banks, and to suspend also the conditions and limitations of section five of said Act except that no bank shall be permitted to issue circulating notes in excess of one hundred and 25 per centum of its unimpaired capital and surplus. He shall require each bank and currency association to maintain on deposit in the Treasury of the United States a sum in gold sufficient in his judgment for the redemption of such notes, but in no event less than five per centum. He may permit National banks, during the period for which such provisions are suspended, to issue additional circulation under the terms and conditions of the Act referred to as herein amended: Provided further, That the Secretary of the Treasury, in his discretion, is further authorized to extend the benefits of this Act to all qualified State banks and trust companies, which have joined the Federal reserve system, or which may contract to join within fifteen days after the passage of this Act.
[Omitted from U.S. Code. As amended by act of Aug. 4, 1914 (38 Stat. 682).]

Section 28. Reduction of Capital of National Banks
(a) In general. Subject to the approval of the Comptroller of the Currency, a national banking association may, by a vote of shareholders owning, in the aggregate, two-thirds of its capital stock, reduce its capital.
(b) Shareholder distributions authorized. As part of its capital reduction plan approved in accordance with subsection (a), and with the affirmative vote of shareholders owning at least two thirds of the shares of each class of its stock outstanding (each voting as a class), a national banking association may distribute cash or other assets to its shareholders.

[12 USC 59. Section 5143, Revised Statutes, as amended and renacted by this section, was further amended by acts of Aug. 23, 1935 (49 Stat. 720) and Oct. 13, 2006 (120 Stat. 1970).]

Section 29. Civil Money Penalty

First Tier
(a) Any member bank which, and any institution-affiliated party (within the meaning of section 3(u) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) with respect to such member bank who, violates any provision of section 22, 23A, or 23B, or any regulation issued pursuant thereto, shall forfeit and pay a civil penalty of not more than $5,000 for each day during which such violation continues.
[12 USC 504(a). As added by act of Nov. 10, 1978 (92 Stat. 3641) and amended by acts of Oct. 15, 1982 (96 Stat. 1523) and Aug. 9, 1989 (103 Stat. 470).]

Second Tier
(b) Notwithstanding subsection (a), any member bank which, and any institution-affiliated party (within the meaning of section 3(u) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) with respect to such member bank who 1. A.commits any violation described in subsection (a);
B.recklessly engages in an unsafe or unsound practice in conducting the affairs of such member bank; or
C.breaches any fiduciary duty;

2.which violation, practice, or breach– A.is part of a pattern of misconduct;
B.causes or is likely to cause more than a minimal loss to such member bank; or
C.results in pecuniary gain or other benefit to such party,
shall forfeit and pay a civil penalty of not more than $25,000 for each day during which such violation, practice, or breach continues.

[12 USC 504(b). As added by act of Nov. 10, 1978 (92 Stat. 3641) and amended by act of Aug. 9, 1989 (103 Stat. 470).]

Third Tier
(c) Notwithstanding subsections (a) and (b), any member bank which, and any institution-affiliated party (within the meaning of section 3(u) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) with respect to such member bank who– 1.knowingly– A.commits any violation described in subsection (a);
B.engages in any unsafe or unsound practice in conducting the affairs of such credit union; or
C.breaches any fiduciary duty; and

2.knowingly or recklessly causes a substantial loss to such credit union or a substantial pecuniary gain or other benefit to such party by reason of such violation, practice, or breach,
shall forfeit and pay a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed the applicable maximum amount determined under subsection (d) for each day during which such violation, practice, or breach continues.
[12 USC 504(c). As added by act of Nov. 10, 1978 (72 Stat. 3641) and amended by act of Aug. 9, 1989 (103 Stat. 470).]

Maximum Amounts of Penalties for Any Violation Described in Subsection (c)
(d) The maximum daily amount of any civil penalty which may be assessed pursuant to subsection (c) for any violation, practice, or breach described in such subsection is– 1.in the case of any person other than a member bank, an amount to not exceed $1,000,000; and
2.in the case of a member bank, an amount not to exceed the lesser of — A.$1,000,000; or
B.1 percent of the total assets of such member bank.

[12 USC 504(d). As added by act of Nov. 10, 1978 (92 Stat. 3641) and amended by acts of Oct. 15, 1982 (96 Stat. 1523) and Aug. 9, 1989 (103 Stat. 470).]

Assessment, Etc.
(e) Any penalty imposed under subsection (a), (b), or (c) shall be assessed and collected by 1.in the case of a national bank, by the Comptroller of the Currency; and
2.in the case of a State member bank, by the Board,
in the manner provided in subparagraphs (E), (F), (G), and (I) of section 8(i)(2) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act for penalties imposed (under such section) and any such assessment shall be subject to the provisions of such section.
[12 USC 504(e). As added by act of Nov. 10, 1978 (92 Stat. 3641) and amended by act of Aug. 9, 1989 (103 Stat. 470).]

Hearing
(f) The member bank or other person against whom any penalty is assessed under this section shall be afforded an agency hearing if such member bank or person submits a request for such hearing within 20 days after the issuance of the notice of assessment. Section 8(h) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act shall apply to any proceeding under this section.
[12 USC 504(f). As added by act of Nov. 10, 1978 (92 Stat. 3641) and amended by act of Aug. 9, 1989 (103 Stat. 470).]

Disbursement
(g) All penalties collected under authority of this paragraph shall be deposited into the Treasury.
[12 USC 504(g). As added by act of Nov. 10, 1978 (92 Stat. 3641) and amended by act of Aug. 9, 1989 (103 Stat. 470).]

“Violate” Defined
(h) For purposes of this section, the term “violate” includes any action (alone or with another or others) for or toward causing, bringing about, participating in, counseling, or aiding or abetting a violation.
[12 USC 504(h). As added by act of Aug. 9, 1989 (103 Stat. 470).]

Regulations
(i) The Comptroller of the Currency and the Board shall prescribe regulations establishing such procedures as may be necessary to carry out this section.
[12 USC 504(i). As added by act of Aug. 9, 1989 (103 Stat. 470).]

Notice Under This Section After Separation from Service
(m) * The resignation, termination of employment or participation, or separation of an institution-affiliated party (within the meaning of section 3(u) of the Federal Deposit Insurance Act) with respect to a member bank (including a separation caused by the closing of such a bank) shall not affect the jurisdiction and authority of the appropriate Federal banking agency to issue any notice and proceed under this section against any such party, if such notice is served before the end of the 6-year period beginning on the date such party ceased to be such a party with respect to such bank (whether such date occurs before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this subsection).
[12 USC 504(j). As added by act of Aug. 9, 1989 (103 Stat. 461).]

* So in original. Subsection (m) was added without subsections (j) through (l ).

Section 30. Saving Clause
If any clause, sentence, paragraph, or part of this Act shall for any reason be adjudged by any court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid, such judgment shall not affect, impair, or invalidate the remainder of this Act, but shall be confined in its operation to the clause, sentence, paragraph, or part thereof directly involved in the controversy in which such judgment shall have been rendered.
[Omitted from U.S. Code. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

Section 31. Reservation of Right to Amend

1. Reservation of Right to Amend
The right to amend, alter, or repeal this Act is hereby expressly reserved.
[Omitted from U.S. Code. Part of original Federal Reserve Act; not amended.]

One thought on “TEXT of Contract With America

  1. I know it’s a Long read, but if you have the patients and Legal understanding to read the whole document, you will see that the FRA was actually a Prototype of sorts, to use on the rest of the world. The IMF/World Bank has done a similar thing with Every country they have Loaned money to, in exchange for their Assets such as Oil and Property or Land rights, as Collateral

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